EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF MANPOWER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED HOSPITALITY FIRMS IN ENUGU

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Human resource management regards training and development as a function concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the job performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training and development can be described as "an educational process which involves the sharpening of skills, concepts, changing of attitude and gaining more knowledge to enhance the performance of employees" (Wikipedia, 2018).
The name of the discipline has been debated, with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development(CIDP) in 2000 arguing that "human resource development" is too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to feel comfortable with(Athanasios&Chatzimouratidis, 2012). Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "learning and development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an over-general and ambiguous name, and most organizations referring to it as "training and development".
Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development(William &Kazanas2004).Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate(William 2005).
The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others(Derek, Laura & Stephen,2004).
The conflicts that are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Harrison, (2005) points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone will not compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer(Harrison,2005).
Many training and development approaches available for organizations are proposed including: on-the-job training, mentoring, apprenticeship, simulation, web-based learning, instructor-led classroom training, programmed self-instruction, case studies/role playing, systematic job rotations and transfers etc(Shawn & Rebecca, 2004).
Typical roles in the field include executive and supervisory/management development, new-employee orientation, professional-skills training, technical/job training, customer-service training, sales-and-marketing training, and health-and-safety training. Job titles may include vice-president of organizational effectiveness, training manager or director, management development specialist, blended-learning designer, training-needs analyst, learning officer, and individual career-development advisor(Cohn & Reeves,2005).
Talent development is the process of changing an organization, its employees, its stakeholders, and groups of people within it, using planned and unplanned learning, in order to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage for the organization. Cohn &Khurana, (2005) notes that the name may well be a term in search of a meaning, like so much in management, and suggests that it be thought of as selective attention paid to the top 10% of employees, either by potential or performance.
While talent development is reserved for the top management it is becoming increasingly clear that career development is necessary for the retention of any employee, no matter what their level in the company. Research has shown that some type of career path is necessary for job satisfaction and hence job retention. Perhaps organizations need to include this area in their overview of employee satisfaction(Cohn &Khurana, 2005).
The term talent development is becoming increasingly popular in several organizations, as companies are now moving from the traditional term training and development. Talent development encompasses a variety of components such as training, career development, career management, and organizational development, and training and development. It is expected that during the 21st century more companies will begin to use more integrated terms such as talent development(Cohn &Khurana, 2005).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
In  Nigeria,  inefficiency  is  a  very  serious  problem  that  needs  to  beaddressed urgently. Europe faced this same problem in the 18th and 19th centuries and writers such as Max Weber (1947), Vroom (1970), and a host of others were able to address the issue of how organizations can increase output and improve efficiency.
Most organizations find it difficult to identify the training needs, and even where the need is recognized, a lot of time and money is committed to staff training and development. The exercise is often either in-appropriate, haphazard or premised on a faulty diagnosis of organizational training needs. In other situations, where training happens to occur, deployment of staff so trained may be without regard to the skill the staff acquired, leading to frustration of personnel so trained and also general inefficiency in the system. Public enterprises in Nigeria are fond of this practice (Onah, 2008). The workforce is generally under-tapped, under-utilized and therefore falls short of its anticipated contributions to the realization of organizational goals. It is appalling to note that managers in Nigeria have paid little or no attention on staff training programmes often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Numerous scholars have been writing on how efficiency, competence and effectiveness can be achieved through training.
Among other scholars that highlighted the usefulness of training are (Graig 2006), Akintayo 2006), &Oguntimehin,2001). They identified the functions of training as follows; increase productivity, improves the quality of work, improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise.

1.3     Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of manpower training and development on employees’ performance in selected Hospitality firms.
The specific objectives are:
1.     To ascertain the degree to which training and development of employees' has enhanced performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
2. To examine the link between training and development, incentives, and    performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
3. To make proposals that will enhance sound labor focused capacity in       hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis

1.4 Research Question
1.     What is the degree to which training and development of employees' has enhanced performance in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis?
2.     What is the link between training and development, incentives, and performance in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis?
3.     What proposals will enhance sound labor focused capacity in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis?

1.5     Research Hypothesis
Hypotheses One
Ho:     Training and development of employees' has not enhanced performance  in in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
H1:     Training and development of employees' has enhanced performance in              in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
Hypotheses Two
H0:     There is no training and development, incentives, and performance          in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
H1:     There is training and development, incentives, and performance      in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.

Hypotheses Three
H0:     There are no proposals that will enhance sound labor focused capacity in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.
H1:     There are proposals that will enhance sound labor focused capacity                   in hospitality firms in Enugu metropolis.

1.6     Significance of the Study
The study is importance to the following areas
Organization:Organization especially the hospitality firms have a whole lot to learn and know about the result of thorough training in organization. Organizations can gain in terms of superior performance
Employees:employees will understand what expectation they have when training is carried out for them.Employees can also have improved conditions of service due to better organizational performance
Academia:researchers conducting similar study will find this study useful as it serves a referencing point.The research can also benefit the academia in terms of addition to knowledge
Government:this is very useful to government and all policy maker as the study gives some findings and recommendation for the general public

1.7 Scope of the Study
It will be too wide and unmanageable for us to carry out a study on manpower training and development on employees’ performance. Its implication will be that while studying manpower training and development on employees’ performance in Nigeria we related it to some selected hospitality firms. To escape this danger, the scope of this study was reduced to manpower training and development in some selected hospitality firms. Even at this, studying the whole hospitality firms in Nigeria will also be too unmanageable for us.
The intention was to use the study in generalizing on manpower training and development on employees’ performance in some selected hospitality firms.

1.8     Limitations of the Study
There always exist many constraints militating against a good research work. Among these limitations/ constraints include the unwillingness attitude of some individuals to come up with relevant information, for some reasons best known to them.
Another constraint is that of reaching to the appropriate respondents. Most of our respondents do not reside where they can be easily reached and this posed a problem for the researcher.
Besides, some of the respondents subjected the researcher to some rigorous bureaucratic process thereby making it hard for the researcher to get some relevant information needed for the study and this also posed a limitation to the researcher.
However, despite these constraints, the research was successfully carried out through persistence and perseverance.

1.9 Definition of Terms
Training: The action of teaching a person or animal a particular skill or type of behaviour.
Development:The process of developing or being developed
Human Resources: The personnel of a business or organization, regarded as a significant asset in terms of skills and abilities.
Manpower Planning:  Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization.
Business: A person's regular occupation, profession, or trade.
Hospitality: The friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.

References
Athanasios, Chatzimouratidis (2012). "Decision support systems for human     resource training and development". International Journal of Human Resource Management. March 1, 2012,. Vol. 23 Issue 4,: p662, 32 p.

Cohn JM, Khurana R, Reeves L (2005). "Growing talent as if your business      depended on it".     Harvard Business Review. 83 (10): 62–     70.PMID 16250625.

Derek Torrington; Laura Hall & Stephen Taylor (2004). Human Resource         Management. Pearson Education. p. 363.

Rosemary Harrison (2005). Learning and Development. CIPD Publishing.

Shawn A. Smith & Rebecca A. Mazin (2004). "Training and Development". The    HR Answer        Book.AMACOMDiv American Mgmt Assn.

William J. Rothwell& H. C. Kazanas (2004). The Strategic Development of Talent. Human           Resource Development Press. p. 4..
William J. Rothwell (2005). Effective Succession Planning. AMACOM Div        American Mgmt.         pp. xviii.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 64 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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