EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY LEVELS OF PALM OIL SLUDGE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL TURKEYS

ABSTRACT
A 56 day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary levels of palm oil sludge on the growth performance, carcass trait, and economic cost of feeding local turkeys. Forty local poults (mixed sexes) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups with eight poults per treatment. Each treatment was replicated twice with four poults per replicate in a completely randomized design. The poults were fed commercial broiler starter ration containing 24% crude protein and 2800kcal/kgME for the first 6 weeks. Thereafter, five experimental diets containing varying levels of palm oil sludge were formulated and fed until the turkeys attained the age of 14 weeks. The experimental diets were designated T1,T2, T 3, T4 and T5 with T1 containing 0% inclusion of palm oil sludge serving as control, while T2 , T3, T4 and T 5 had 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels of inclusion of palm oil sludge, respectively. The body weights of the turkeys were taken weekly for 8 weeks while the feed intake of the turkeys was recorded daily. The feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain of the turkeys were computed. At the age of 14 weeks, four birds per treatment were randomly selected, weighed and sacrificed for carcass and organ evaluation. Weights of eviscerated carcass, breast, thigh, drumstick, back, wing, head, shank, back, neck, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, abdominal and visceral fat were recorded. The results showed that the final live weight, total weight gain, total feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0 .05="" 0.05="" 1460g="" 1670g="" 1730g="" 1750g="" 1770g="" 1950g="" 1="" 2.47="" 2.66="" 2.69="" 2.72="" 2010g="" 2050g="" 2240g="" 2530g="" 2="" 40g="" 4410g="" 4560g="" 4610g="" 4770g="" 5="" 98.93g="" among="" and="" average="" bird="" birds="" by="" compared="" conversion="" cost="" daily="" day="" diets.="" differences="" feed="" final="" for="" gain="" had="" highest="" in="" inclusion="" influenced="" intake="" lighter="" live="" mean="" of="" oil="" on="" other="" p="" palm="" production="" ratio="" recorded="" respectively.="" s="" showed="" significant="" significantly="" sludge="" than="" that="" the="" there="" those="" total="" treatment="" treatments.="" treatments="" turkeys="" value="" values="" weight="" were="" when="" with="">N
/Kg), total feed intake (Kg/bird), total feed cost (N/kg) and cost of feed/kg weight gain. Cost of production of birds in Treatment 1 (0% palm oil sludge inclusion) was significantly (p<0 .05="" higher="" s="" with="">N640.80) which was required to reach the final live weight and decreased with increasing level of palm oil sludge inclusion. Treatment 5 (20% palm oil sludge inclusion) required the least amount (N450.80) to reach the final live weight. Absolute values for fasted live weight, dress weight, thigh, drum stick, breast and back were significantly (p<0 .05="" 1650g="" 20="" 2150g="" 2200g="" 2750g="" 299.40g="" 2="" 392.70g="" 437.50g="" 437.7g="" 487g="" 570g="" 5="" and="" appeared="" at="" be="" best="" concluded="" could="" diet="" even="" for="" higher="" in="" included="" inclusion="" it="" level="" local="" of="" oil="" on="" palm="" perform="" recorded="" respectively.="" significant="" sludge.="" sludge="" span="" that="" the="" therefore="" though="" to="" treatment="" turkeys="" up="" values="" was="" were="" with="">
CHAPTER ONE
1.1      INTRODUCTION
Local turkeys are natural foragers and they are known for their adaptability and ruggedness (Smith, 1990). They are kept as scavengers in different parts of the country especially in the savannah and derived savannah belts (Ajala et al., 2007). It has been reported that turkey can be reared virtually anywhere and their natural habitat is open forest and wooded area (NRC, 1991).

Out of the poultry species in Nigeria, the local chickens constitute 69% of the total poultry population (FLDPCS, 1991). The other poultry species such as turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and pigeon equally have great potentials of contributing to the available meat supplies. The potential of local turkeys cannot be overlooked considering the huge foreign exchange incurred in the importation of improved exotic stock (Ibe, 1990).

Turkey production provides the opportunity of meeting animal protein demand by consumers in Nigeria. Turkey meat has a wide acceptance with little or no limitation in terms of traditional and religious taboos as compared to pork, which is rejected by Muslims (Afolabi and Oladimeji, 2003). Turkeys have a relatively short production period and they can supply the highly needed protein for man in terms of quality and quantity. Turkeys have been found to be of considerable economic and social significance in the traditional life of Nigerians, in that they are used as presents during festivals like Christmas and as sign of appreciation and expression of goodwill.

Turkey farming in Nigeria has now shifted from backyard farming to an intensive farming due to change in market priorities and consumer preference. It which deserves consideration is the palm oil sludge. Agro-industry by-products such as palm oil sludge, wheat offal, maize gluten feed, brewer’s dried grain, rice bran and molasses have been experimented upon in the feeding of livestock particularly monogastric animals like pig and poultry. These by-products appear to hold some promise in reducing feed cost because they have no direct nutritional benefit to man.

The dwindling feed reserves in Nigeria has increased interest in the exploitation of agro-based industrial by-product that at present largely go to waste and are a pollution hazard. At the same time, with ever increasing seriousness of the waste management problems from these processing agro industries, the incorporation of these wastes into diets could be a profitable way of overcoming this difficulty. There are available information on the use of some of these by-products like rice bran, wheat offal, brewer’s dried grain in feeding poultry and other animals like pigs in Nigeria (Alade et al., 2002). However, the use of palm oil sludge in the feeding of turkeys appears not to have been given much attention in Nigeria. Palm oil sludge is abundant and available all year round in various states of the country. Studies on the use of palm oil sludge in the feeding of farm animals will help to save production cost. It is expected that the findings of this work will help to increase poultry production in Nigeria, thereby solving the problem of animal protein deficiency in Nigeria.

There is also the need to integrate animal production into the allied processing industries to ensure that animals play a complementary rather than competitive role with man in meeting feed requirements (Chenost and Mayer, 1977).

1.2      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth response and carcass quality of turkey birds fed diets containing graded levels of palm oil sludge.

The specific objectives of the study were to:
i                      evaluate the growth performance of turkey fed varying dietary levels of palm oil sludge.
ii                   evaluate the carcass quality of turkeys fed the different diets
iii                 evaluate the cost effectiveness of using palm oil sludge in feeding turkeys

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 71 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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