The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of broken marriage on academic performance of primary school pupils and the role of teachers and community members in minimizing those effects. The study employed qualitative and quantitative research approach. The sample includes pupils from the selected primary schools in Ilala Municipality, head teachers, and community members. The research instruments used to collect information were interviews, observations, and documentary reviews. The study findings showed that broken marriages contribute a lot to student’s poor academic performance, psychological problems academic performance and delinquent behavior among students. Community members were aware that broken marriages have effects on children’s academic performance and that broken marriages contribute much to negative perception. The researcher recommends that parents should be responsible to their children by helping to make their marriages work in order to ensure the good welfare of their children. The community members, including teachers, neighbors and all who love children should make it their responsibility regardless being their biological parents or otherwise. Schools at all levels should have strong guidance and counseling unit to help all the children in need of special attention. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT), Universities and religious organizations should work together and develop training programme on Love.


1.1       Overview
1.2       Background to the Problem
1.3       Statement of the Problem
1.4       Purpose of the Study
1.6       Research Questions
1.7       Significance of the Study
1.8       Conceptual Framework of the Study
1.9       Delimitation of the study

2.1       Introduction
2.2                   Teachers’ Perceptions on the Effects of Broken Marriage to Children’s
                        Academic Performance
2.3                   Effects of Broken Marriage on School Going Children
2.4                   Perceptions of Children with Single Parents
2.5                   Academic Achievement among Adolescents of Divorced Families
2.6                   Comparisons of Children from Divorced and Two-Parent Families
2.7       Factors Affecting the Children’s Academic Performance and Socialization
                        Processes in the Family
2.7.1    Types of Family and Students’ Academic Performance
2.7.2    Family Size and Position in the Family
2.7.3    Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status
2.8                   Experience in Korean Family Relations
2.9                   Parents’ Marital Quality, Parent-child Relations, and School Adjustment
2.10     Family Disruption and Children’s Academic Functioning
2.11     The Long-term Effects of Divorce
2.12     Importance of the Home
2.13     Socialization of a Child
2.14     Child’s Care and Protection
2.15     Emotional and Social Support
2.16     The Need for Love and Security
2.17     The Need for New Experience
2.18     The Need for Praise and Recognition
2.19     Summary

3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.2       Area of Study
3.3       Population, Sample And Sampling Techniques
3.3.1    Target Population
3.3.2    Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
3.3.3    Sample Schools
3.3.4    Primary School Low Academic Achievers Sample
3.4       Data Collection Techniques
3.4.1    Documentary Review
3.4.2    Questionnaires
3.4.3    Interview
3.5       Validation of the Study Instruments
3.6       Data Analysis Techniques
3.7       Ethical Consideration

4.1       Introduction
4.2       Characteristics of the Respondents
4.2.1    Sex of Respondents
4.2.2    Age of Respondents
4.2.3    Education level of Respondents
4.3       The Teachers’ Perceptions on the Effects Broken Marriages on Children’s Academic Performance
4.3.1    Awareness on the Effects of Broken Marriages on Children’s Academic Performance
4.4       The Perception of Children on Broken Marriages a The Effects of their Status on their Academic Performance
4.5       The Community Members’ Views on their Role in Minimizing the Effects of Broken Marriage on Pupils’ Academic Performance
4.6       Summary

5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Recommendations
5.2.1 Recommendations for Action
5.2.2 Recommendation for Further Study


1.1         Overview
This research investigated the extent to which broken marriages affect academic performance of pupils in primary schools and Ilala District was selected as a case. Although there is no data available on the rise of broken marriages in Tanzania, that the incidences of broken marriages are on the increase, as well as the failure of children in all levels of education and this study intends to explore and investigate the perceptions of teachers and community members on the effects that broken marriage has on children’s academic performance and their role in minimizing those effects.

This chapter contains background to the problem, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objective of the study, significance of the study, research questions, conceptual framework of the study, delimitation, limitation of the study, ethical considerations and definition of the terms.

1.2         Background to the Problem

Most broken marriages end in divorce. Divorce, according to Havemann (1990) is a legal process through which a marriage is dissolved. Traditionally, divorce implied that one of the partners was guilty of some transgression in the marriage and that one was at fault. Historically, adultery and physical cruelty were the only basis for divorce, but later, a number of other transgressions were added such as abandonment, habitual drunkenness and mental cruelty. Divorce is considered as unmitigated evil. The experience of the human race, however, seems to prove that there may be a right or wrong use of it. Divorce has become, not only a legal action, but also a range of economic, psychological and social actions.

Steinzor (1969) sees divorce as an act of considered and willful choice which is inconsistent with human heritage. In human culture, love and personal choice in marriage are logical derivations of institutionally guaranteed freedoms, where there is freedom to choose divorce as means a freedom to change one’s mind.

The image of the heavy hand of death in the marital vow,” till death do us part,” it seems, contradicts tradition of liberty and the individual right ‘to change mind before death’ (Steinzer 1969). Thus, divorce has become contradictory to marriage vows: that one is committed to achieving harmony within the family but be ready to separate if family life becomes a prison.

According to McDonald (1978) - as cited earlier on, divorce is defined as the dissolution of a relationship, which is recognized as marital relationship. It is marked by formal court proceedings and its decree is divorce. Divorce is usually accompanied by formal arrangements for the owning of property, custody and support of children, if there are any. The property adjustment may also include a provision requiring alimony to be paid by one partner to the other although alimony is less frequently granted today.

Children from divorced families are nearly five times more likely to suffer damaging mental troubles than those who live with both parents. This shows that two parents are much better in bringing up healthy children than one. Children who come from broken families will most likely have difficult time in life. Children of divorced parents are roughly two times more likely to drop out from school than their peers who benefit from living with parents who are not divorced (Mclanahan 1994). Some children from broken marriages are more likely to turn to drug abuse or other negative behaviors. The truth is that every child needs and deserves the love and provision of a mother and a father. The loving two –married –parent family is the best environment for children. A strong family and home is a place where children gain the identity, discipline, and moral education that are essential for their full individual development.

America, once a nation with a strong marriage, had created the best route to achieving the American dream. It has now become a nation in which divorce is commonly seen as the path to personal liberation. In this case many experts argue that, because nothing can be done about it, all Americans should simply accept the culture of divorce without considering the future of the children. Studies in the early 1980s showed that children in repeat divorce earned lower grades and their peers rated them as less pleasant to be around with (Andrew Cherlin, 1981).

In 1990s, the divorce in India was as low as 7 failed marriages per 1000 marriages. As women increased in work places and earned a salary, the need to rely on a man to earn the daily bread for the family has nearly ceased to exist. With this new found freedom, women no longer had to spend time to think about the consequences of a broken marriage. Still, the divorce rates in India posed the beginning of the new millennium are as low as 11 failed marriages per 1000 marriages.....

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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