The study examined the Correlates of Management Practices of Primary School Head Teachers in South East Nigeria in Promoting Child friendly School Environment and the factors that have relationship with these practices. The study sought to determine the demographic correlates of the management practices of head teachers in: (i) the provision of facilities and equipments in primary schools,

(ii)      the protection of the rights of children, (iii) the promotion of healthful environment for pupil, (iv) the promotion of gender equality, (v) fostering collaborative relationship between schools, parents and communities and (vi) encouraging pupils inter-personal relationships with staff Twelve research questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. A corelational survey research design was adopted. The sample of 192 was selected from the population of 5,714 primary school head teachers in South East Nigeria using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. A 58 – item instrument t itled Correlates of Management Practices of Primary School Head Teachers in South East Nigeria in Promoting Child-friendly School Environment Questionnaire (MAPOT) and an Observational Rating Scale (ORS) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences version 20. Percentages, means, standard deviations and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient were used to answer the research question, while t-test, ANOVA and multiple regressions were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that the state of facilities, equipment and materials for instruction are grossly inadequate. Findings also revealed that head teachers in public primary schools in South East Nigeria promote child-friendly school environment to some extent. Results also indicated that significant relationships existed between some demographic variables of state, location, gender, experience, age and the management practices of head teachers in the promotion of child-friendly school environment. It was recommended among others, that existing head teacher development programme should be intensified to improve the management skills of head teachers for effective adoption of child-friendly school environment. Capacity building workshops should be organized for retraining of head teachers by different states with a view to making the head teachers independent, proactive and creative school administrators.


Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions

Conceptual Framework
Concept of:
Management Practices
Child Friendly School Environments
Demographic Variables
Theoretical Framework
Maslow’s Theory of Needs
Aldefer’s Existence Relations Growth Theory (ERG)
Review of Empirical Studies
Studies on Management Practices
Studies on Child Friendly School Environment
Correlational Studies/Demographic Variables
Summary of Literature

Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instruments for Data Collection
Validation of the Instruments
Reliability of the Instruments
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis


Discussions of the Findings
Implications of the Findings
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Study
Summary of the Study

Background of Study
Primary education is a six-year form of education in Nigeria, which children receive before proceeding to secondary level of education. According to the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013), primary education is the form of education attended by children before secondary education. Primary education exists within the ambits of the law and is empowered by the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) that oversees the management and supervision of primary education.

From the foregoing, it is safe to say that primary education is very important in Nigerian education system. Quadiri (2001) presents the following intentions of primary education in Nigeria: to help the child to develop intellectually, physically, morally, socially and emotionally to provide well-qualified citizens that are capable of going to secondary and tertiary institutions to be trained as professionals in various services that are essential for the development of the country; and to assist primary school learners who cannot further their education to become useful citizens and the community at large. Primary education is the foundation upon which other strata of educational edifice are built. Adesina (2011) adds that primary education serves as foundational levels of all other education by providing children with a good preparatory ground for further education. These aims agree with the provisions of the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic ofNigeria, 2013:21) on the specific objectives of primary education which are to: develop in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment giving the child opportunities for developing manipulative skill to enable him function effectively in the society within the limit of his capacity; and providing basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality. For the attainment of these objectives primary school curricular which have been developed to suit such desires are implemented by the primary school administrators with the cooperation of the teachers.

Heads of primary schools are tasked with the implications of these objectives. The success of primary school education therefore rests on effective primary school administration which involves the participation of the local communities, well qualified and contented staff. Consequently, the administrators need the cooperation and support of the parents, teachers, the State Universal Education Board, Local Government Education Authorities and the Ministry of Education.

The authority of the head teacher according to Nwaham (2008) is viewed in the position occupied as well as task and responsibilities performed. Head teachers develop and implement school development plan, provide facilities and equipments, keeps records both statutory and non-statutory in addition to leading teaching and learning in schools. Leithwood & Jantzi (1999) classified these roles and responsibilities: as collaborative decision making providing both informal and formal opportunities for members of the school to participate in decision making about issues that affect the school, practices that demonstrate the head teachers expectations for excellence, quality, and or high performance on the part of teachers, practices that distribute the responsibility for thinking about organization effectiveness broadly among teachers and shared vision about the school culture. These are summed up by Education Sector Support Program in Nigeria (ESSPIN, 2010) into eight areas namely planning for school improvement, leading teaching and learning, managing teachers, managing resources, managing finance, strengthening community link, accountability and promoting pupils welfare. Stoner (2002) noted that supervision of teaching and learning process, decision making, record keeping, communication, financial management, public relations and compliance to legal stipulations are critical aspect of school management. In this study, the following aspect of management practices namely: leading teaching and learning, management of facilities and equipment, pupil personnel services, (rights of children), healthful environment, gender equity, school community relations and staff-pupil relation are considered in this study.

Leading teaching and learning has to do with what the head teacher does to promote or direct teaching and learning in the school. These according to Mgbodile (2004) involve the task of ensuring that organized teaching and learning is effective in the school. The essence of leading teaching and learning is to support teachers with the ideas and suggestion that will improve the instructional delivery as well as identify their needs and problems. Similarly ESSPIN (2010) observed that learning achievement in primary school is influenced by head teachers’ management practices in the promotion of child-friendly school environment.

Facilities and equipment in this study are the instructional resources which influence teaching and learning such as classrooms, staffrooms, compound, laboratories, games/sports facilities, toilet facilities, water supply and materials for curriculum studies. These facilities if not properly provided by the state and if not properly managed by the head teachers could dilapidate and wear out to the extent that the school will not derive optimum benefits from it. The head teacher in addition to other duties is expected to utilize, safeguard and maintain instructional facilities and equipment which help in the promotion of child-friendly school environment.

Adherence to legal status is another important area of responsibility for the school head teacher. Proper understanding of their roles and codes of conduct as they impact on the rights and responsibilities of teachers, pupils and other stakeholders in the school afford them the opportunity to define the limits of their individual behaviors, provide understanding, injects respectability and mutuality of interest for the smooth running of the school towards the achievement of educational goals (Kalagbor, 2004). The relationship between the head teacher demographic variables in the protection of the rights of children will be determined in this study.

School community relation is another management practice of primary school head teachers. It underscores the need to establish good rapport and human.....

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