ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVELS OF HEAVY METALS AND SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN FARM SOILS AND IRRIGATION WATER IN GOMBE, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
Human activities such as industrial amounts of heavy metals into surface and ground water, soils and ultimately to the biosphere. In the present study the levels of some selected heavy metals ( irrigation water sampled from selected Woredas of Gombe, Northern Region, Nigeria were analyzed. 1 kg from every sample was air dried, mechanically ground using a stainless steel roller an g subsample was drawn from the bulk soil (2 mm fraction) and reground to obtain 200 using a mortar and pestle. The digestion method optimized for soil sample by FAO Digestion method has been 0.5 g of dried and homogenized soil sample was taken in to a flask and treated as follows. To each 6 mL of aqua 30 % H parameters such as temperature and time. The contents of the minerals in the digests were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FA were found in soil: Zn ( ­ 67.6), Pb ( study, all heavy metals were not found (below method detection limit) in water samples. concentration of heavy metals in the soil which was collected from sites in which vege was determined in this study. The range level of Zn, Cu were 110.97 respectively. Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb. heavy metals determined in soils were compared with standard values and found below the tolerance level.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Heavy metal pollution in soils refers to cases where the quantities of the elements in soils are higher than maximum allowable concentrations and this is potentially harmful to biological life at such locations (Adeleken, 2011). Metals enter the soil as organ complexes, such as those used in fertilization to correct micronutrient deficiencies or those possibly present in discharge from a nuclear fuel separation facility (Cataldo, 1978). Heavy metals occur at typical background in all ecosystems, however, anthropogenic releases can result in higher concentrations of these metals relative to their normal background values hence the pollution (Adeleken, 2011). Heavy metals released from vehicular emission can accumulate in surface soils and their deposition over time can lead to abnormal enrichment, thus causing metal contamination of the surface soils (Fong et al., 2008). High concentrations usually occur in soils below or near landfills and agricultural lands that have been irrigated with contaminated water (Mamtaz, 2006). Studies have shown that both long term and short term contamination of soils have effects on microbial activity and enzyme activities of the soil (Alloway, 1994). The toxicity and mobility of heavy metals in soils depend not only on the total concentration but also on their specific chemical form, bonding state, metal properties, environmental factors, soil properties and organic matter content (Osu, 2011). Exposure of children, generally accepted as the highest risk group who have a higher adsorption rate of heavy metals because of their active digestion system and sensitivity of haemoglobin, to heavy metals, can greatly increase ingestion of metal laden soil particles via hand –to­mouth activities. In addition, adults may be exposed to threat since inhalation is easier pathway for toxic metals to enter their body (Fong et al., 2008).
Heavy metals in water: The contamination of fresh waters with a wide range of pollutants has become a matter of great concern over the last few decades (Al­Weher, 2008).The aquatic systems receive a large amount of heavy metals from natural occurring deposits and natural processes and anthropogenic activities (Wogu, 2011). Anthropogenic sources arising from human activities such as industrial, municipal effluents, as well as non­point source run off are the main sources of metals in rivers (Pint, 1976). Discharge of heavy metals into rivers or any other aquatic environment can change both aquatic species diversity and ecosystems due to their toxicity and accumulative behaviour (Al­Weher, 2008). Heavy metals dissolved in water also endanger the lives of the public who use it for drinking and also irrigation. When used for irrigation heavy metals have the danger of being incorporated in food chain and therefore ingested by the public (Wogu, 2011). Heavy metals accumulate in the soils at toxic levels as a result of long term application of untreated waste water and therefore soils irrigated by wastewater accumulate heavy metals in their soil surface. When the capacity of the soil to retain heavy metals is reduced due to repeated application of waste water, the metals leach into ground water or soil solution available for uptake (Sonayei et al., 2009).
Atomic spectroscopy: This technique is applicable to most gas phase elements over a wide range of concentrations and involves detecting, measuring and analyzing radiation that is either absorbed or emitted from the atoms or ions of the element of interest. It involves three techniques: absorption, emission and fluorescence. In all the above, the sample is decomposed by intense heat into hot gases consisting of free atoms and ions of the element of interest (McMahon, 2007).  

Objectives
General Objective: To investigate the level of heavy metals in irrigation water and soil irrigated in selected woreda’s of Gombe, Nigeria.

Specific Objectives
     To analysis physico­chemical parameters of water
     To determine heavy metals concentrations from soil which used for irrigation purpose
     To determine the levels of heavy metals in irrigation water 
     To correlate the levels of heavy metals in soil samples 
     To compare the obtained results with other accepted values 

SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
  It is believed that at the completion of this study, the findings will be of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry as the study will seek to enumerate the impact of heavy metal present in waste water on pharmaceutical industries. The study will also be of great importance to the inhabitant of Gombe metropolis as the study seeks to enumerate the effluent of heavy metals presents on waste water presents. The study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on research in similar topic; finally, the findings of this study will also be immense benefit to government, academia, scholars, researchers and the general public.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the effects of heavy metals presents in irrigation water in Gombe state, Nigeria. But in the course of the study there are some constrain which limited the scope of the study

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 44 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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