Against the background of incessant occurrence of flood and its devastating impacts on residents, the research focused on the effects of flood in effect of hazardous metropolis flooding and urban ecology in kilema, lafia in Nassarawa state. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire from the respondents. Data collected were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistical analysis such as cross-tabulation and frequency. The study reveals that the major cause of flood in the study area was the non-functionality of the drainage system (65.89%) or total absence of the drainage system (37.68%) as the case may be. Also, high rainfall (65.22%) and dumping of waste into the drainage and water bodies (44.93%) have contributed to the regular occurrence of flood in the area. The regular re-occurrence of flood in the area has also been detrimental to the health of the residents of Area. The study recommends enforcement of environmental laws that will restrict dumping of waste into the water body and sponsoring of public awareness and educative programs on how man’s activities has contributed to flood occurrence. Also, the repair and construction of drainage system should also be sponsored by the government at various level as well as proper channelization of river bodies to prevent overflow during heavy downpour. This will undoubtedly control its occurrence.

Background to study
The complexity of anthropogenic activities of man without adequate attention to geological structure of most cities of developed and developing nations has undoubtedly contributed to reoccurrence of disaster and consequently poses threat to environmental sustainability in most of these nations (Oludare et al., 2018). This irrefutably has led or accumulated to unresolved challenges. Among the unresolved challenges being faced are vicious flood incidences experienced in the last four decades. The occurrence is stern in third world countries where there is intensity in land use, haphazard development, and unprecedented urbanization among others. According to Adeyinka et al. (2008, p. 1) “Most of these cities are also characterized by uncontrolled development , substandard and inadequate housing, poor infrastructure provision and development, poor planning process and administration, weak urban governance, poor land use structure resulting to slum…’’. These plethora of problems are bedeviling cities of third world countries and Nigeria in particular.
Consequently, there has been unprecedented occurrence of floods and its associated negativities in most of the urban centers of developing countries (Montoya Morales, 2002). For instance, in Nigeria, reports have shown that devastating flood disaster had occurred in Ibadan (1985, 1987, 1990, and 2011), Osogbo (1992, 1996, 2002, and 2010), Yobe (2000), Akure (1996, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) and the coastal cities of Kilema, lafia in Nassarawa, Ogun, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Uyo, Warri among others (Olaniran, 1983). This claimed many lives and properties worth millions of Naira. 
Several anthropogenic factors have contributed to the incidence of flood. Among these factors is the encroachment of development to flood prone areas. The incursion into such areas have being progressive until now because of unprecedented urbanization and industrialization which has undoubtedly resulted into large scale massive deforestation, loss of surface vegetation and farmlands.
According to Okechuckwu (2008 p. 272); “the incursion of unplanned and uncontrolled development into urban infrastructure facilities, violate the major objectives of physical planning and consequently result into misuse of land thereby creating disorderly arrangement of urban landscape and the occurrence flood that is mostly evident in cities of third world countries”. Arising from these incongruous and haphazard developments in cities of third world cities, the occurrence of flood, particularly in Kilema, lafia in Nassarawa, has been known to be paramount to some areas or local government in the state. 

Statement of the Problem
Flooding of residential property is a real and growing phenomenon worldwide including Nigeria by causing short and long-term detrimental problems for the victims. In Kilema, lafia in Nassarawa State of Nigeria, raining season is not always the best of time especially for those living in areas which susceptible to flooding. It is a period that comes with the intimidating problem of flooding. Whenever the problem of flooding occurs, many homes especially those that are susceptible to flooding are swamped and properties worth millions of naira are often destroyed and sometimes human lives are involved as the flood tide sweep away everything on its path thereby leaving residents to recount their losses and tale of woes. 
Flooding in Kilema, lafia in Nassarawa State in Nigeria is predominantly caused by excessive rainfall which is very prevalent during the months of June to July of the year when the level of rainfall usually exceeds 100 mm per day most time while the second period of maximum rainfall is often experienced during the months of September and October coupled with bad drainage systems and illegal structures often built along drainage paths which often block the free flow of water into drainage channels

Objective of the study
state. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1. assess the Factors Responsible for the Flooding of the Estate
2. analyze why the Residents for Still Residing in the Estate Despite the Incessant Flooding of the Estate
3. determine the impact of Flooding on the Value Residential Properties within the Estate

Research Questions
The research questions raised to guide this study are:
1. What are the Factors Responsible for the Flooding of the Estate
2. What are the Reasons Given by the Residents for Still Residing in the Estate Despite the Incessant Flooding of the Estate
3. What is the Impact of Flooding on the Value Residential Properties within the Estate

Significance of the study
The disaster profile of Kilema, lafia in Nassarawa and environ is dominated by flood events which are associated with property damage, interruption of movement of people and that of economic activities, which invariably retard development. This study is important as it will suggest disaster reduction related activities targeted at safety and sustainability of human lives and property. Also it would serve as a guide to government in the allocation of space for developmental activities, management and prevention of flood.

Scope of the study
The study would examine the effect of hazardous metropolis flooding and urban ecology in Kilema, lafia in Nassarawa state.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 52 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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