The aim of this thesis is to assist Makana Municipality in their work to develop the sanitation in the rural areas, with the focus on dry toilets. This thesis will try to answer the question of which type of dry sanitation solution would suit the rural areas in Makana Municipality and, therefore, it presents two possible types of toilets.

The recommendations in this thesis are based upon the feasibility study that was done from November to December 2011 by Henna Timonen and Sofie Lundin from Novia University of Applied Sciences, Raseborg, Finland. Information was gathered through interviews and site visits. The collected results from the visits are presented in this thesis.

The recommendation is to start with implementing composting dry toilets in the schools, where education plays a vital role. The composted waste can be utilized as fertilizer, thus also helping the finances of the schools. Since the rural areas of Makana are vast and hard to reach, the sanitation solution cannot be too technical, since support for this cannot be given. Ventilated improved pit latrines could be advisable in areas with proper soil conditions, it would be an improvement from open defecation, but composting dry toilets would be more beneficial, if implemented with enough education on use and management.


1          Introduction

2          Background
            2.2       The Millennium Development Goals
            2.3       Raseborg and Makana municipal cooperation

3          Sanitation
            3.1       Definition of sanitation
            3.2       Diseases and bacteria
            3.3       Sanitation coverage

4          Dry sanitation
            4.1       Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP)
            4.2       Composting dry toilet
            4.3       The composting process
            4.4       Waste treatment

5          Methods
            5.1       Feasibility study

6 Results

7          Discussion
            7.1       Problems
            7.2       Recommendations

8          Svensk sammanfattning av examensarbetet
9          References 

1 Introduction
The aim of this thesis is to assist Makana Municipality in their work to develop the sanitation in the rural areas, with the focus on dry toilets. This thesis will present recommendations for dry sanitation systems, since different solutions can be suited for different places, depending on type of soil, placement or use. In addition to this, ideas on how to educate residents to use and maintain the toilets will be given. This thesis will try to answer the question of which type of dry sanitation solution would suit the rural areas in Makana Municipality and base these recommendations on the feasibility study that was completed in the spring of 2012 by students from Novia University of Applied Sciences.

The world’s sanitation problems cannot be solved by building water latrines and sewerage systems. The building and maintenance costs are too high and, furthermore, this infrastructure cannot ensure a clean environment. The necessary quantity and quality of water for such a solution cannot be found in many regions of the world. It is preferable to find a sanitation solution that both works well, and is cheap and as simple as possible, both in the implementation stage and in use.

United Nations Economic and Social Council stated already in 1958 that “no higher quality of water, unless there is a surplus of it, should be used for a purpose that can tolerate a lower grade.” Therefore, it is necessary to develop cheap, technically simple and safe sanitation alternatives, which can be adjusted to meet the needs of different cultures and environments. It is also necessary to increase sanitation and hygiene education for understanding of the connections between human and environment health (de Ruyter van Steveninck E.D. & Schwartz K., 2004).

The Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) states that everyone has a right to have access to a basic level of sanitation service. The government of South Africa has, therefore, set a target to deliver sustainable, safe and healthy sanitation services to all of its citizens by 2014, this including eradication of bucket toilets. To achieve this target, there is a need for sustainable, long-term service provision to ensure that the sanitation services are implemented and maintained in a way that does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. Since 1994, nearly 3 million households in South Africa have received toilets, but the backlogs still remain high, especially in the rural areas (SALGA, 2009).

2 Background

The overall vision for the water service provision in South Africa is as follows:

”Water is life, sanitation is dignity. All people living in South Africa have access to adequate, safe, appropriate and affordable water and sanitation services, use water wisely and practise safe sanitation. Water supply and sanitation services are sustainable and are provided by effective and efficient institutions that are accountable and responsive to those whom they serve. Water is used effectively, efficiently and sustainably in order to reduce poverty, improve human health and promote economic development. Water and wastewater are managed in an environmentally responsible and sustainable manner” (City of Cape Town, 2008).

2.2 The Millennium Development Goals

The aim of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to push back poverty, inequality, hunger and illness. The seventh goal of Millennium Development Goals aims to ensure environmental sustainability. These goals are an agreement on cooperation signed by UN member states, UN organizations and international financial institutions (Huuhtanen S. & Laukkanen A., 2009).

The MDG pledge to half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by the year 2015. According to the latest reports 67 % of humanity will use improved sanitation services by 2015. That is not enough to reach the target of MDG, which is 75 %. In 2010, about 2.5 billion people worldwide were without improved sanitation (WHO/UNICEF, 2012).

In South Africa, open defecation is practised by 11-25 % of the rural population. This is an alarmingly large number. Although there are many sanitation projects in place to improve the sanitation conditions, the targets of the MDG cannot be completely met by 2015 (WHO/UNICEF, 2012).

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 42 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word   Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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