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1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Problem Statement
1.3       Aim and Objectives
1.4       Scope of the Work
1.5       Justification

2.1       Corncob
2.2       Economic Viability of Corncob
2.3       Origin and History of Activated Carbon
2.4       Processing Techniques
2.5       Manufacture of Activated Carbon
2.5.1    Thermal activation
2.5.2    Chemical activation
2.6       Properties of Activated Carbon
2.6.1    Physical properties and pore structure
2.7       Performance Evaluation of Activated Carbon using Methylene Blue (Mb)
2.7.1    Determination of methylene blue concentration in solution
2.7.2    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB)
2.8       Chemical Properties
2.9       Uses and Applications of Activated Carbon
2.9.1    Gas phase application

3.2       Materials
3.3       Equipment
3.4       Methodology
3.4.1    Preparation of raw materials
3.4.2    Hydrolysis, impregnation and activation of corncob
3.4.3    Design of experiment
3.4.4    Characterization of the corncob, hydrolysate corncob and activated carbon samples

4.1       Proximate Analysis of Corncob
4.2       Yield and Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon
4.2.1    Model validation
4.2.2    Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
4.2.3    Response surface analysis (RSA) plots for hydrolysate yield, activated carbon yield and adsorption capacity of activated carbon samples
4.2.4    Optimization
4.2.5    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
4.2.6    Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
4.3       Physical and Structural Characteristics of Selected Activated Carbon Samples
4.4       Adsorption Isotherm Study
4.4.1    Batch adsorption studies of chromium (VI) ions on AC
4.4.2    Adjusted coefficient of determination

5.1       Conclusions
5.2       Recommendations


Corncob Activated Carbon (AC) was produced via chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) for the hydrolysis step and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the impregnation step. In this work, optimization and development of the model equations for the preparation conditions of AC, Design Expert 6.0.6 Stat-Ease, Inc USA software was used. For the optimization of the AC preparation conditions, a Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to investigate the effect of independent variables on the yield and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon samples. The independent variables used in this work were, phosphoric acid concentration, potassium hydroxide concentration, activation temperature (oC) and activation time (minute). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique was used to optimize the preparation conditions (H3PO4, KOH, temperature and time); with percentage yields of hydrolysate and activated carbon and adsorption capacity of AC as the targeted responses. The optimal conditions for the preparation of AC using CCD software were 358.15 oC, 116.90 minutes, 0.29 mg/l H3PO4, 0.09 mg/l KOH. This set of conditions gave hydrolysate yield of 76.9339 %, while activated carbon yield and Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption capacity were 21.84 % and 1.98 mg/g respectively. The specific surface area of the AC using Sear’s method was 314.2 m2/g. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for hydrolysate yield, AC yield and adsorption capacity showed the developed models equations were significant. The experimental and predicted values of the hydrolysate yield, AC yield and adsorption capacity of adsorbent on adsorbate MB were in close agreement and the correlation coefficients R2-values of 0.9688, 0.9358 and 0.9134. The surface areas of selected ACs were 259.8 m2/g (AC8), 215 m2/g (AC9) and 314.2 m2/g (AC14) gave adsorption capacities of 1.92 gm/g, 1.97 mg/g and 1.98 mg/g of MB respectively. The Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis of the AC samples produced showed the presence of O-H, C-H, C-Br, N-H, C-C, C-N, C=C and C≡C functional groups which aid in adsorbing adsorbate onto the adsorbent. Adsorption isotherm data were used to model the following Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms; the adsorption of Chromium ions on the selected AC produced was predicted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models with R2 value of 0.9974 and 0.7691 respectively. The percentage chromium removal increases with increase in adsorbent dosage. The activated carbon samples produced can be effectively used for wastewater treatment.



1.1                Background of Study

Activated Carbon (AC) is a versatile derivative of biomass predominantly amorphous (crystalline) solid that has extra ordinary large internal surface area and pore volume (Jamaludin, 2010). The unique structure of AC gives rise to its application ranges from liquid to gas phase because of their adsorptive properties.

Industrial ACs can be produced from any cheap material with a high carbon content, low inorganics as precursors such as coal, wood, coconut shell, corn cob, almond shells, peach stones, grape seeds, apricot stones, cherry stones, olive stones, peanut hull, nut shells, rice husk, oil palm shells, sugar cane bagasse (Tsai et al., 1997, and 2001; Jamaludin, 2010;

Diya’udeen et al., 2011). Palm shell, rattan, mango stem peel, and corn cob (Mohd et al., 2011); canarium schevein furthii nutshell (and Ajayi and Olawale, 2009), groundnut shells, Palm Kernel shells, coconut shells, bamboo, wood chips, corn cob, seeds and saw dusts (Oloworise, 2006).

AC has been the most popular and widely used adsorbent in liquid and gas treatment throughout the world. Charcoal been the pioneer of AC has been recognized as the oldest adsorbent known in waste water treatment.

AC is produced by a process consisting of raw material dehydration and carbonization followed by activation. The product obtained has a very porous structure with a larger surface area ranging from 600 - 2000m2/g...

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