INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZEOLITE-Y AND ZSM-5 CATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE CLAYS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 The present research
1.4 Aim and Objectives
1.4.1 Aim
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
1.5 Significance of study
1.6 Justification
1.7 Scope of study
1.8 Limitation

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Properties of Zeolite
2.3 Catalysts
2.4 Catalytic Cracking
2.5 Uses of Zeolites
2.5.1 Commercial and domestic uses
2.5.2 Petrochemical industry
2.5.3 Nuclear industry
2.5.4 Heating and Refrigeration
2.5.5 Construction
2.6 Review of past work
2.7 Catalyst support
2.8 Supported catalyst
2.9 Uses of kaolin clay
2.10 Compaction and Mechanical properties

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.0 Materials, Equipment and Methods
3.1 Materials
3.2 Equipment
3.3.0 Methods and experimental procedures
3.3.1 Uniaxial compression test
3.3.2 Flow characteristics
3.3.3Stress-Strain Analysis
3.3.4 X-ray diffractometer analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.0 Results and Discussions
4.1 Results
4.1.1 Compressive pressure absorption of Kaolin Zeolite-Y, ZSM-5 and Alumina clay
4.1.2 Stress / Strain Analysis on Gambe clay, Pindiga clay and Kaoli clay
4.1.3 Stress / Strain Analysis on Sample A and Sample B
4.1.4Compression test on zeolite-Yn, gambe clay and pindiga clay
4.1.5 Analytical Comparison between CPD commercial Zeolite-Y, CPD pure chemical ZSM-5 and CPD ZSM-5 ϓ alumina
4.1.6 Comparison of compressive pressure against Load for Zeolite-Yn, Zeolite-Ys and Compounded commercial Zeolite-Y
4.1.7 Pressure absorption comparison between Gambe clay, Pindiga clay, Kaolin and Alumina clay
4.1.8 Pressure absorption capacity of Synthesized ZSM-5, pure chemical ZSM-5 and Compounded ZSM-5 γ alumina
4.1.9 Stress / Strain Analysis on Zeolite-Yn
4.1.10 X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analyses
4.2 Discussion of Results
4.2.1 Discussion on compressive pressure absorption of kaolin clay, zeolite-Y, ZSM-5 and alumina clay
4.2.2 Discussion on stress / strain analysis on gambe clay, pindiga clay and kaolin clay
4.2.3: Discussion on stress / strain analysis on sample A and sample B
4.2.4 Discussion on compression test on zeolite-Yn, Gambe clay and Pindiga clay
4.2.5 Discussion on Analytical Comparison between CPD commercial Zeolite-Y,
CPD pure chemical ZSM-5 and CPD ZSM-5 ϓ alumina
4.2.6 Discussion on Comparison of compressive pressure against Load for Zeolite-Yn Zeolite-Ys and Compounded commercial Zeolite-Y
4.2.7: Discussion on Pressure absorption comparison between Gambe clay, Pindiga clay, Kaolin and Alumina clay
4.2.8 Discussion on Pressure absorption capacity of Synthesized ZSM-5, pure chemical ZSM-5 and Compounded ZSM-5 γ alumina
4.2.9 Discussion on Stress / Strain Analysis on Zeolite-Yn
4.2.10 Discussion on X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analyses

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0       Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1       Conclusions
5.2       Recommendations for Further Research Work
5.3 Contribution to Knowledge
References


ABSTRACT
This research work was centred on mechanical properties of zeolite-Y and ZSM-5 catalysts synthesized from locally available clays such as Kaolin, Alumina, Gambe and Pindiga respectively. Pressure absorption capacities of the synthesised zeolite catalysts and that of the supportive clays were carried out with the aid of a bourdon gauge machine. Plastimeter machine alongside with a micro tensometer machine were equally used to determine the young’s modulus of the synthesized zeolite catalysts and flow characteristics of the clays. XRD analysis was carried out using Cu K α-radiation to find the textural properties. Results of the analysis indicated that synthesised ZSM-5 catalyst was denser, could absorbed more pressure as compared with synthesized Zeolite-Y catalyst. Though, in terms of flowability, synthesised Zeolite-Y is more effective than synthesise ZSM-5 catalyst. The young’s modulus of the synthesised catalysts was found to lie between 3.5 N/mm2 – 4.0 N/mm2. Among the clays analysed, alumina clay had proved a more superior support material for the synthesis of the zeolite catalysts in terms of flowability, porosity, and pore size. XRD analysis indicated that at point 2-theta (point where the highest peak occurred), the peak level of the synthesized zeolite catalysts and that of the referenced zeolite are, at the same level which indicated similarity in their performance ability.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to The Study
Zeolites are micro-porous alumina-silicate minerals used for numerous commercial and domestic applications. These include applications in petroleum and petrochemical industries as catalysts, adsorbents and ion exchangers, nuclear industries for nuclear reprocessing, heating and refrigeration, detergents, construction as material additives, medicine, agriculture as a soil treatment, gemstones, as ion-exchange beds in domestic and commercial water purification and softening. The term Zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that upon rapidly heating the material stilbite, it produced large amounts of steam from water that has been adsorbed by the material. Base on this, he called the material zeolite, from the Greekzep, meaning “to boil” And lithos meaning “stone” (Cejka et al,

2007).

Today, Zeolite-Y is used commercially as catalyst in petroleum refinery because of its high concentration of active acid sites, its high thermal stability and high size selectivity. Zeolite-Y is a synthetic analog to the mineral faujasite and crystallizes with cubic symmetry. It has crystal sizes in the approximate range of 0.2-0.5µm and pore diameter of 7.4À. It thermally decomposes at 793oC (Htay et al, 2008).

The content of the zeolites themselves in zeolites-containing catalysts is not greater than 3-15%. In the preparation of catalyst, zeolites modified with metals (chromium, rhenium, platinum.......

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