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Title page
Table of Contents

1.0       Introduction
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Aim of the Study
1.3       Statement of the Research Problem
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Justification for the Study
1.6       Scope and Delimitations

2.0       Review of Related Literature
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Effects of Urbanisation
2.3       Causes of Urbanisation
2.4       The Process of Urbanisation
2.5       Language Contact and Linguistic Change
2.6       The Concept of Linguistic Borrowing
2.7       Challenging the Term “Borrowing”
2.7.1    Direct Borrowing
2.7.2    Indirect Borrowing
2.8       Universality of Word Borrowing
2.9       Other Ways of Vocabulary Enrichment in Language
2.10     Reasons for Linguistic Borrowing
2.11     History and Development of Borrowing of Words
2.12     Borrowing / Loaning Strategies
2.13     Theoretical Framework
2.14     Summary

3.0       Methodology
3.1       Preamble
3.2       Research Procedure
3.3       Survey Method
3.4       Sampling Procedure
3.5       Subjects
3.6       Collection of Data
3.7       Recording
3.8       Method of Data Analysis

4.0       Data Analysis
4.1       Introduction
4.2       English Words Adopted by Yoruba Speakers
4.3.1 English Words Related to Education/School
4.3.2 English Words Related to Technology
4.3.3    English Words Related to the Home
4.3.4 English Words Related to Clothes/Clothing
4.3.5    English Words Related to Colours
4.3.6    Other English Loan Lexical Items
4.3.7 English Words Related to the Days of the Week
4.3.8 English Words Related to Festivals/Celebrations
4.3.9 English Words Related to Food/Fruits
4.3.10 English Words Related to Health/medicine
4.3.11 English Names Related to Kinship Terms
4.4       Hausa and Arabic Loan Words Adopted by Yoruba Speakers in Kaduna Metropolis
4.4.1    Words Relating to Hausa Proper Names Adopted by Yoruba Speakers
4.4.2    Arabic Words Relating to Religion and Belief System
4.4.3    Hausa Words Relating to Food Adopted by Yoruba Speakers
4.4.4    Names of the Seven Days of the Week Borrowing/Loaned by Yoruba Speakers from Hausa Language
4.5       General Survey of List of Other Words of Hausa Origin Borrowed by Yoruba Speakers
4.6       Implications of Yoruba Language Borrowing Words from English, Hausa and Arabic Languages
4.7       A Survey and Analysis of Data to test the Intelligibility of some of the Words in the South-West
4.8   Analysis of Recorded Utterances
4.8.1    Borrowed/Loaned Words Recorded on Kaduna Polytechnic and its Academic Activities
4.8.2 Recorded Utterances at Home on the Presentation of Gift Items
4.8.3    Utterances Recorded in a School Environment
4.8.4 Speech Utterances Recorded at Home on Computer Knowledge
4.8.5    Speech Utterances Recorded in an Office on Nigeria’s Election
4.9       Findings

5.0       Summary and Conclusion
5.1       Summary
5.2       Findings
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Need for Further Study
5.5       Conclusion


The thesis entitled “A Morphological Analysis of Loan Words among Yoruba Speakers of English in Kaduna Metropolis” is a documentation and analysis of some English, Hausa and Arabic loan words in Yoruba language. The study is propelled by the following observations: that a large part of the vocabulary of the Yoruba Language are loan words from other languages particularly the English, Hausa and Arabic languages due to language contact in a heterogeneous society, that these loan words are basically as a result of the need for new designations and identity and that these loan words have been domesticated and are generally used by the Yoruba speakers according to their profession, religion and even their level of literacy in Kaduna metropolis. The work therefore, finds out the extent to which language contact through Urbanisation has influenced loaning of words and how some words have been integrated into the vocabulary of the speakers and hence give some forms of identity. The source of data for the research is primary source which involves the participant observation method and tape recording of utterance. The researcher discovered that there are very many English, Hausa and Arabic loan words in the Yoruba language and that in the course of integrating these loan words, they (the loan words) experienced adjustment in line with the morphophonemic rules of the Yoruba Language. This study will help to understand the learning problems of students of English Language, teach Yoruba speakers of English better and how the issue of inter language and hence inter lingual errors or even errors arising from interference can be tackled.




Many children born in Nigerian urban areas are exposed to two to more languages because of the heterogeneous nature of the cities/towns. One of such languages is the language of the environment; the other may be their mother tongue L1, English language which is the official language of the country and bits of Arabic language which is the language of Islam. That is if Islam is one of the predominant religions in the metropolis.

Kaduna metropolis used by the researcher as the scope is a cosmopolitan city and hence heterogeneous in nature. This influences language use among the speakers in the metropolis due to the contact of different languages. A child born in this environment is exposed to a minimum of two other languages aside his mother tongue. They include Hausa (language of the environment) and English language (official language of the nation and medium of instruction) and Arabic used for worship among the Muslim faithful.

Language contact occurs in a variety of phenomena which include language convergence, and re-lexification, other products include: pidgin, creoles, code-switching, code-mixing etc. Banjo, (1983), Madaki, (1983), Pariola (1983) in Olaoye (1991), also state that, when languages come into contact, a variety of phenomena take place which are bilingualism, borrowing, re-

lexification, code-switching, code-mixing and perhaps language death. This.....

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