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Title Page
Table of Contents

1.1       Introduction
1.2       Background of the Study
1.3       Statement of the Problem
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Aim and Objectives
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope and Delimitation
1.8       Justification for the Study

2.1       Preamble
2.2       Previous Studies on Political Language
2.3       Relationship between Language and Politics
2.4       An Overview of Political Discourse
2.4.1    Presidential Speeches as a Form of Political Discourse
2.5       What Is Metaphor? (Metaphor as a Linguistic Concept)
2.5.1    What Metaphor Is Not? (By Thomas Hohstadt)
2.5.2    Theories of Metaphor
2.5.3    Different Forms/ Types of Metaphor
2.5.4    Scope of Metaphor
2.5.5    The Study of Metaphor in the Domain of Political Discourse
2.6       The Emergence and Development of Critical Discourse Analysis
2.7       Different Approaches to the Study of Critical Discourse Analysis
2.8       Critical Discourse Analysis and the Analysis of Political Speech
2.9       Critical Metaphor Analysis
2.10     Theoretical Framework

3.1       Sources of Data
3.2       Method of Data Collection
3.3       Sample and Sample Procedure

4.1       Preamble
4.2       The Different Forms of Metaphor Used in the Speeches
4.3       The Functions and Role Metaphors Performs in the Speeches
4.3.1    Metaphor as a Means of Establishing a Common Ground
4.3.2    Metaphor as a Form of Ambiguity
4.3.3    War Metaphor
4.3.4    Journey Metaphor
4.3.5    Orientational Metaphor (More Is Up; Less Is Down)
4.3.6    Ontological Metaphors
4.3.7    Conventional/ Creative Metaphor
4.3.8    Building Metaphors
4.3.9    Story Metaphors
4.4       The Differences and Similarities between Obama‘s and Jonathan‘s Use of Metaphors
4.4.1    Differences and Similarities in the Use of Metaphors by Obama and Jonathan
4.4.2    Findings

5.1       Preamble
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion and Suggestion


In recent times, there has been a pragmatic shift in the interest of linguists from language form to language functions especially from Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) perspective. Several attempts have been made by scholars to investigate what people do when they use language. The use of metaphor in speeches abounds as studies carried out by Lakoff (1980) and Barbour (1974) suggests that metaphor goes beyond aesthetics and colouration in language use; but performs meaning beyond the surface level. The purpose of this work therefore is to analyse through Critical Metaphor Analysis (CMA) which is an aspect of CDA, the metaphoric use of language in President Goodluck Jonathan and President Barack Obama‘s acceptance and inaugural speeches. The speeches were carefully selected and the study paid attention to the functions and roles metaphors play in speeches and cohesively, the different forms of metaphors used in the speeches. With a total of twelve (12) types of metaphors used, the study finds out that metaphors perform different functions asides being element of literary aesthetic or verbose display of intellect in language proficiency. These functions include the ability to establish common ground, the tendency to create ambiguous and obscure statements, the ability to use metaphoric language as elements of lies and deception and other functions. In the light of the above findings, the study concludes that the use of metaphoric language (pointing to different types of metaphors) in the analysed presidential speeches performs two major functions: the pragmatical, power relation and the political— that is the supposition of interaction that displays social relations and power differential and struggle. It is pragmatical when the choice of metaphor only performs the function of emphasising the truth-value of a statement but by default, utterances do not correspond with semantic interpretations; it is that of power when its use exercises power, shows power struggle or a power differential and it is political when the use is aimed at persuading and winning support, lying or deceiving the public.


1.1              INTRODUCTION

This study emphasizes the use of metaphor in presidential speeches. Critical Discourse Analysis and other methodologies are used in order to explicate the different communicative and social functions of metaphor in the speeches analysed. Language is a vital tool for communication and most of our social lives depend on the use of language or speaking with one another. Language is a means of communication within a speech community and it helps to establish and maintain relationships among people or a group of people in a given society. The mind of one human can reach the mind of another by the process of speaking. Speaking is the cement that holds friendships, families, communities, Societies, and governments together (Philips et al, 1985).

People have to engage themselves in communication for any meaningful development or change to take place in the environment. At a formal level of interaction, there are several forms of public discourse these are, sermons, motivational speech, paper presentations, debates, political speech etc. Schaffner (1996) supports the fact that language is an important factor in political speeches; he opines that ―any political action is prepared, accompanied, controlled, and influenced by language‖.

Politics is an act or science of influencing people‘s beliefs on a civic level when there are more than two people involved. Politics itself is a mixture of the high and the low. It is the realm in which people attempt to make real some of their highest aspirations: their desire for political freedom, longing for justice, hope for peace and security. At the same time, politics is laced with individual and group seeking their selfish interests at the expense of others Lasswell (1978).

Politics is also a struggle for power in order to put certain political, economic and social ideas into practice Bayram (2011). In this process, language plays a crucial role. The aim of.......

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