PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG ADULTS WORKING IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENTS IN UMUAHIA, ABIA STATE NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study assessed the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults working in Federal Government Establishments in Umuahia Abia state, Nigeria. Two hundred adults randomly selected in the establishments participated in the study. Interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, food frequency and some lifestyle practices. The anthropometric measurements of the respondents were taken using standard methods and their body mass index (BMI) calculated. The BMI of the respondents were grouped according to World Health Organisation (WHO) 2000 BMI classification. The postprandial plasma glucose level and the blood pressure of the respondents were measured using standard methods and compared with normal values. Data collected were analysed using statistical package for social sciences.Frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, Chi- square analysis and Analysis of variance were used. The results obtained showed that 1.5% of the respondents were underweight, 44.5% of the subjects were normal while 35.5% and 18.5% were overweight and obese respectively. Thirteen percent of female respondents were significantly more obese (P<0 .05="" 1.5="" 1="" 2="" 4.5="" 5="" adult="" among="" and="" at="" blood="" both="" counterparts.="" diabetes="" diastolic="" different="" eighty="" female="" glucose="" had="" half="" hypertension.="" like="" male="" mellitus="" more="" normal="" not="" observed="" of="" onset="" p="" percent="" pressure="" respondents.="" respondents="" similar="" stage="" statistically="" systolic="" than="" the="" their="" three="" values="" was="" were="" while="">0.05. The results showed that respondents’ educational status had no significant effect on their BMI, blood sugar and blood pressure at P>0.05 . Similarly, there was no significant effect of respondents’ income level on their BMI, blood sugar and blood pressure at P>0.05 . The food consumption pattern of the respondents showed that starchy foods formed the main bulk of their diet. In the meat/fish group, fish was consumed daily by 58.5% of the respondents. Daily consumption of palm oil and vegetables among respondents were 80.5% and 42.5% respectively. Only 36.5% of the respondents had regular medical examination. The results show that the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes among the respondents will increase if major lifestyles changes are not made.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Specific objective of the study
General objectives of the study
Significance of the study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Cardiovascular diseases
Atherosclerosis
Coronary heart disease
2.1.3 Angina pectoris
2.1.4 Stroke
2.1.5 Heart failure
2.1.6 Cardiomyopathy
2.2 Cardiovascular disease risk factors
2.2.1 Obesity
2.2.2 Hypertension
2.2.3 Diabetes
2.2.4 Smoking/tobacco use

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Area of study
3.2 Study population
3.2.1 Sample size
3.3 Method of data collection
3.3.1 Blood pressure
3.3.2 Blood glucose
3.3.3 Anthropometry
3.3.4 Body mass index
3.3.5 Questionnaire
3.3.6 Research assistants
3.3.7 Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations
References

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the study
Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. They include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and atherosclerosis (World Health Organization, WHO, 2009). Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally, more people die annually from these diseases than from any other cause. An estimated 17.1 million died from cardiovascular disease in 2004, representing 29% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.2 million deaths were due to coronary heart disease and 5.7 million as a result of stroke (WHO, 2009). Economic transition, urbanization and globalization bring about lifestyle changes that promote heart disease (Chockalingam & Balaguer-Vintro, 1999). Rapid acculturation and improvement in economic conditions have led to the disappearance of the protective effects of a healthy diet. Urban dwellers may believe that a diet high in energy and fat, similar to that of western affluent countries is a symbol of their new status. The global availability of cheap vegetable oils and fats has led to greatly increased fat consumption among low-income countries. As a result of this, people are exposed to cardiovascular disease risk factors in developing countries (Chockalingam & Balaguer Vintro, 1999). There are many risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. The major ones are tobacco, alcohol, high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity and unhealthy diets. There is a high prevalence of these risk factors across the world (Mackay & Mensah, 2004).

1.2  Statement of the Problem

World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 16.7 million people around the globe die of cardiovascular disease each year (WHO, 2003). In 2001, cardiovascular diseases contributed to nearly one-third of global deaths. Low and middle income countries contributed to 85 percent of cardiovascular diseases deaths (WHO, 2002). In developing countries, twice as many deaths from cardiovascular diseases now occur. A particular cause for concern is the relatively early age of cardiovascular disease deaths compared to those in the developed regions (WHO, 2003). By 2010, cardiovascular disease was estimated to be the leading cause of death in developing countries (WHO, 2003). WHO estimates that 60 million people with high blood pressure (a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases) are at risk of heart attack, stroke and cardiac failure (WHO, 2002).WHO estimates that the number of people in developing countries with diabetes (also a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases) will increase by more than 2.5 times (170 percent) from 84million in 1995 to 228million in 2025 (WHO, 2003). Men with diabetes have 3times higher coronary heart disease risk than men without diabetes. The World Health Organization has reported that the number of disability adjusted life years lost to cardiovascular disease in Africa rose from 5.3 million for men and 6.3 million for women in 1990 to 6.5million and 6.9 million in 2000 and could rise to 8.1 million for men and 7.9 million for women in 2010. Men have biological predisposition making them more susceptible to heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases (Maciej, 2008). It has been observed that many people working in government institutions live a sedentary life and as a result are prone to cardiovascular diseases.

1.3  General Objective
The general objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults working in federal government establishments in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria.

1.4  Specific objectives

The specific objectives of the study were to

a)      determine and classify the body mass index (BMI) of the respondents

b)     determine the blood sugar level of the respondents

c)      determine the blood pressure of the respondents

d)     assess the food consumption pattern of the respondents using food frequency

e)      compare the body mass index, blood glucose level and blood pressure of the male respondents to their female counterparts

1.5  Significance of the study

(a)     The results of the study will reveal the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among the subjects.
(b)   This study will reveal the nutrition knowledge of the subjects and give baseline information on the possible need for more nutrition education.


(c)   The results of this study when disseminated will provide information for health professionals including nutritionists to create channels (campaigns, media outreach) to sensitize the public on cardiovascular disease risk factors, causes, complications and prevention.....

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