NUTRIENTS AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LESSER – KNOWN VEGETABLES - PHYLLANTUS NURIRI AND MUCUNA PRURIENS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON IRON AND BETA CAROTENE STATUS OF RATS

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ABSTRACT
The study examined the nutrients and phytochemicals composition of some lesser -    known vegetables in Nigeria (Mucuna pruriens and Phyllantus nuriri) and their effects on iron and beta carotene status of rats. Leaf extract was collected from each vegetable. The leaves were separately plucked, sorted and extraneous materials were removed. Then they were washed with deionized water and were pulverized to get the concentrates. Standard methods were used to determine the proximate, some minerals, and vitamins composition as well as phytochemical constituents of the extracts. Animal study was carried out to ascertain the bioavailabihty of these nutrients. Twenty male adult rats were used for the study. They were divided into four groups according to their body weights. The animals were housed individually in metabolic cages. The rats were fed standard rat chow. The extracts were made to provide 0.11 mg/day iron to the rats. The study lasted for twenty eight days. The rat study showed that feeding rats with rat chow supplemented with Mucuna pruriens and Phyllantus nuriri extract improved the hemoglobin levels. Mucuna pruriens contained 11.47% carbohydrates, 3.20% protein, 1.25% ash and 3.82% crude fibre, while Phyllantus nuriri contained 15.47% carbohydrate, 3.87% protein, 3.02% ash and 3.20% crude fibre. The vegetables had significant quantities of calcium (23.45mg and 34.71mg), iron (7.45mg and 11.27mg), Vitamin C (26.16mg and 20.13mg/100mg), vitamin E (3.06mg and 3.62mg) and 3 - carotene (3.62 and 3.65mg) per l00g sample. Anti - nutrients and toxicant levels of the vegetables were low. Mucuna pruriens had 0.004mg phytate and 0.62mg oxalate while Phyllantus nuriri had 1.28mg phytate and 1.31 mg oxalate. Phytochemicals were present in these vegetables. Mucuna pruriens contained 0.003% alkaloids, 0.54% tannins, 7.01% saponins, 3.16% flavonoids, 12.47% cyanogenic glycosides and 1.06% phenols. Phyllantus nuriri had 1.68% alkaloids, 0.68% tannins, 3.95% saponins, 6.22% flavonoids, 1.17% cyanogenic glycosides and 0.21% phenols. The hemoglobin level for Phyllantus nuriri group was 23.73%, while the Mucuna pruriens group was 16.57%. The serum iron, red blood cell count and beta - carotene levels of rats were significantly improved. The recommendations are that the consumption of these vegetables could be useful in addressing some micronutrients and diet - related non – communicable diseases because of their rich and micronutrient and phytochemical constituents. Nutrition educators should use the information from this study to counsel families on the consumption of these lesser - known vegetables. Students should also be assisted to carryout the same study on humans to see the nutritional effect. Organoleptic evaluation of these vegetables should be carried out to evaluate acceptability.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
List of Tables
List of Figures
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 General Objective of the Study
1.4 Specific Objectives
1.5 Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Vegetables
2.1 Nutrient Composition of Vegetables
2.2 Mineral Composition
2.2.1 Vitamins
2.3 Nutrient Composition of Green Leafy Vegetables
2.4 Nutrient Composition of Mucuna Pruriens
2.5 Nutrient Composition of Phyllantus Nuriri
2.6 Phytochemical Content of Vegetables
2.7 Antinutrients
2.8 Agronomy and Characteristic Features of Phyllantus Nuriri
2.8.1 Plant Description
2.8.2 Phenols
2.9 Agronomy and Characteristic Features of Mucuna Pruriens
2.9.1 Current Status and Use of Mucuna Pruriens
2.10 Induction of Anaemia
2.10.1 Micronutrient Malnutrition Approach
2.10.1.1 Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD)
2.10.2 Iron
2.10.2.1 The Role of Iron in Human Metabolic Processes
2.10.2.2 Iron Absorption
2.10.2.3 Factors Influencing Dietary Iron Absorption
2.10.2.4 Enhancement of Iron Absorption
2.10.2.5 Iron Absorption from Meal
2.10.2.6 Iron Requirements
2.10.2.7. Iron Deficiency (Anaemia)
2.10.2.8 Iron Depletion
2.10.2.9 Economic Assessment of      Addressing Nutritional Anaemia
2.10.2.10 Approaches to Assessing the Economic Benefit of Addressing Anaemia
2.11 Animal Experimental Studies
2.12 Haemoglobin
2.13 Dietary Interaction
2.14 Nutrient Nutrient Interaction

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials
3.2 Methods
3.3 Chemical Analysis
3.4 Crude Protein
3.5 Fat Determination(Soxhlet Method)
3.6 Ash Determination
3.7 Crude Fibre
3.8 Moisture Determination
3.9 Carbohydrate Contents
3.10 Mineral Determination
3.11 Vitamins Determination
3.12 Anti Nutrients
3.12.1 Phytate
3.12.2 Oxalates
3.13 Phytochemicals
3.13.1 Phenols
3.13.2 Alkaloids
3.13.3 Saponins
3.13.4 Flavonoid
3.13.5 Tannins
3.13.6 Cyanogenic Glycoside
3.14 Animal Experiment
3.14.1 Animal Housing
3.14.2 Diet Compostion
3.14.3 Blood Sample Collection
3.14.4 Anaemia Induction
3.14.5 Biochemical Indices
3.14.6 Determination of Haemoglobin
3.14.7 Procedure for the Determination of Red Blood Cell Count
3.14.8 Preparation of Film and Counting of RBCs
3.14.9 Procedure for Serum Iron Determination
3.14.10 Procedure for the Determination of Serum Beta Carotene
3.15 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.0 Results

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Proximate Composition
5.1 Mineral Composition
5.2 Vitamins
5.3 Phytochemicals
5.4 Anti - nutrients
5.4.1 Hemoglobin
5.4.2 Serum Iron
5.4.3 Serum Beta Carotene
5.5 Red Blood Cell Count
Conclusion
Recommendations
References
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Green leafy vegetables constitute an indispensable constituent of human diet, especially

in local delicacies. It is estimated that over 60 species of green leafy vegetables are used

as food. Apart from the well-known and easily cultivated green leafy vegetables serving

as sources of micronutrients,  several wild and ornamental plants   are  traditionally

'important supplement sources of food nutrients. They are used for various purposes ranging from food for man and animals, to therapeutic and manure for plants. Some of the vegetables are underutilized.

Seasonality  partly  precipitates  micronutrient  deficiency,  especially  during  off-season

when green leafy vegetables are unavailable. The anti-nutrient content of vegetables,

limit   the   availability    of   micronutrient   present   in   the   vegetables.   The   issue   of

micronutrient  deficiencies  and  their  consequences  on  health,  learning  capability  and

productivity of affected people constitute a major public health problem globally and is

of increasing prominence in Nigeria. The current rate of micronutrient deficiency is 24%

among mothers and 48% among pregnant women in Nigeria (FMOH, 2006). There have

been several attempts by Nutritionists the world over to proffer adequate solutions to this

problem. Part of the efforts is to document the nutrient composition of some green leafy


vegetables, which still grow as wild crop or semi-wild crop or unpopular vegetables in many areas in Nigeria ecosystem, which could contribute to the micronutrient intake of the populace.

Mucuna pruriens leaves and Phyllanthus nuriri leaves are unpopular vegetables in Nigeria. Mucuna is a leguminous plant (NAS, 1979). A number of species are available in Nigeria for example M. utilis (“Agbara-orji ”), M. Flagellipes-(“ukpo’), M Sloanie (“ukpa ’). The leaf of Mucuna pruriens is commonly known as “agbara nkita” among the Ibos of Eastern Nigeria. The leaves of mucuna are used as medicine or for therapeutic purposes. In the local communities, these leaves are used for the treatment of anaemia (Ezekwesili, 2005).

Phyllanthus nuriri leaf is another wild vegetable, which comes under the botanical family called Euphorbiaceae. The most common species of this family in most West African nations are Phyllanthus amaru and Phyllanthus nuriri popularly called “chancea piedra” in many parts of the world. Among the Ibos of eastern Nigeria it is called “okwonwa”. In the local communities, it is used in the treatment of anaemia and malaria (Uzoma, 2004).


1.2         Statement of the Problem
Micronutrient deficiencies and their consequences on health, learning capabilities and productivity of affected people constitute a major problem of public health globally. The problems are of increasing prominence in Nigeria. The deficiencies affect children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the general populace including adolescents. Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of micronutrients. Little or no information exists in literature for some unpopular, wild or semi-wild vegetables that moderately survive during off seasons. Changes in food habits in Nigeria have greatly affected consumption of local vegetables. Urbanization and globalization have not helped matters either. Many people in different communities do not consume some of the indigenous vegetables due to ignorance of their nutrients composition. Consumption of some vegetables has been known to be associated with poverty.

Based on these observed facts, there is the need to evaluate the nutrients composition of wild, semi-wild and unpopular vegetables used by some communities for therapeutic purposes. The result of the evaluation may shed light to the micronutrients and the possible phytochemicals that are responsible for the therapeutic actions. The vegetables could be integrated into family meals to address micronutrient problems and their therapeutic uses could be scientifically explored. Since animal food sources of micronutrients are more expensive, there is need to identify those foods that will enhance household food security and improve micronutrient status of the populace. Iron found in vegetables are in a form that is not easily absorbed unless taken with enhancers or processed in a way it will be made available. Biological study on the vegetables with rats will provide evidence – based information on their use for treatment of anaemia......

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