NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES OF FRESH AND SUN-DRIED Carica papaya L and Solanum macrocarpon L FRUIT SOUPS CONSUMED BY TIV, BENUE STATE

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ABSTRACT
The study determined nutrient composition and organoleptic attributes of fresh and sundried carica papaya L pawpaw (Mbuer) and solanum macrocrpon L.garden egg (Mngishim) fruit soups consumed in Tiv communities of Benue State, Nigeria. Processing, preparation and utilization of fresh and sundried pawpaw and garden egg fruits for soup production information was obtained from focus group discussion (FGD).The recipes used for the work was based on t mean values after (FGD). The fruits were sundried for 72h, cooked with ground egusi, beniseed and groundnut seeds as thickeners. Proximate and micronutrient were determined using standard analytical procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Duncan,s new multiple range test at 5% probability was used to separate and compare means and was accepted at (p≤0.05) for the organoleptic test. Proximate composition for fresh uncooked pawpaw fruits had higher moisture (72.57%), carbohydrate (20.55%), crude fibre (2.68%), protein (1.65%), ash (1.45%) and fat (1.10%) relative to those of garden egg fruits 90.54, 3.92, 2.55, 1.52, 1.36 and 0.11%, respectively. Dehydration increased nutrient values for garden egg fruits relative to pawpaw fruits. Sun drying increased iron (0.60mg), magnesium (63.23%), phosphorus (98.76mg) and sodium (26.58mg) values to pawpaw fruit. Iron (0.46mg), zinc (0.63mg), magnesium (53.25mg), phosphorus (103.29mg) and sodium (24.19mg) values increased in garden egg fruit. Vitamin profile for fresh and sun dried pawpaw and garden egg fruits had differences. Dehydration decreased β-carotene, thiamin and vitamin C values for pawpaw. It increased thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine values for garden egg fruits. Proximate composition for soups based for these fruits showed that fresh unripe pawpaw and beniseeds as thickener (FPB) had the highest fat (15.86%), carbohydrate (8.50%), protein (4.63%), crude fibre (4.44%), ash (1.79%) and moisture (63.28%). The soups based on fresh garden egg soups and cooked with egusi (FGE) as thickener had highest nutrient profile. The soup based on sundried garden egg soup had varied nutrients relative to other soups. Sun dried pawpaw fruit and beniseed soup (DPB) had highest protein (5.86%), fat (15.25%) and fibre (5.66%).Sundried garden egg fruits soup with egusi (DGE) had highest value for protein


(5.67%) and ash (4.76%),each. The soups based on fresh and dried pawpaw and garden egg soups contain energy that ranged from 173.81-197.55kcal. Among the three soup thickeners, egusi had much more increased in minerals relative to those soups based on beniseed and groundnut FP and FG fruits soups. Groundnut caused more increased in garden egg fruit soups. Beniseed soup had more vitamin relative to those soups based on egusi and groundnut.The vitamins for fresh pawpaw soup with egusi increased much more in garden egg fruits soups. Vitamin profile for dehydrated fruits soups caused significant differences for pawpaw and garden egg soups. Dehydrated pawpaw and egusi DPE soup supplied 2.56% of RDA of calcium daily. The FPB and the FGE produced 15.72%, and 546.67% RDA thiamin needed daily. Comparison of nutrient densities for energy with FAO/WHO/UNU values per 1000kcal. The fresh and dried pawpaw and garden egg soups met over 70% protein.FPE had 88.11%, DPE had 95.38% and the FGE had 73.60%. Most of the values for Vitamin C, calcium and sodium met their requirement values. Scores for all organoleptic attributes of the twelve (12) soups were more than half. The FP and the FG soups scores from (5.63 to 8.17).The DP and DG based soups were from (5.23 to 7.47) of the nine hedonic. The soups were generally acceptable. The FGE and the DGE soups were the most preferred by the panelist.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the study
1.2       Statement to the problem
1.3       General objective
1.4       Specific objective
1.5       Significance of the study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0       Outline of review headings
2.1       Fruits
2.2       Carica Papaya (Pawpaw)
2.2.1    Origin of Carica Papaya
2.2.2    Nutritional and medicinal benefits of Carica Papaya
2.2.3    Nutrient composition of fresh Carica papaya
2.2.3.1 Protein, amino acids of ripe Carica papaya fruits
2.2.3.2 Carbohydrates
2.2.3.3 Minerals
2.2.3.4 Vitamins composition
2.2.3.5 Fatty acids
2.2.3.6 Fibre
2.2.4    Nutrient content of dried Carica papaya fruit
2.2.4.1 Carbohydrates and sugar
2.2.4.2 Fibre
2.2.4.3 Vitamins
2.2.4.4 Minerals
2.3       Solanum macrocarpon (Garden egg)
2.3.1    Origin of Solanum Macrocarpon
2.3.2    Nutritional and medicinal benefits of Solanum Macrocarpon
2.3.3    Nutrient composition of Solanum Macrocarpon
2.4       Food processing
2.4.1    Sun drying
2.4.2    Effects of processing on nutrient content of fruits
2.5       Food diversification
2.6       Soups
2.7       Recipes harmonization

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Area of study
3.2       Research design
3.3       Sample and Sampling procedure
3.4       Preliminary visit
3.5       Focus group discussion
3.6       Collection of recipes
3.7       Recipe harmonization
3.8       Ingredients  and  mean  values  of  the  ingredients  obtained  from  five  focus  group
            discussion for the harmonization of recipes of the various soups
3.9       Sources of materials
3.10     Processing of fruits
3.11     Soup preparation
3.12     Determination of portion size
3.13     Determination of the % contribution of the serving portion of the dishes of the     
            Nutrient density for selected nutrients
3.14     Chemical analysis
3.14.1  Proximate analysis
3.14.1.1           Moisture content
3.14.1.2           Crude protein content
3.14.1.3           Fat content
3 .14.1.4          Ash content
3.14.1.5           Crude fibre
3.14.1.6           Carbohydrate determination
3.14.2  Energy determination
3.14.3  Mineral analysis
3.14.4  Vitamins determination
3.15     Sensory evaluation
3.16     Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1       Focus group discussion
4.1.1    General knowledge about Carica papaya and Solanum Macrocarpon
4.1.2    Processing and utilization of fresh and dried unripe Carica papaya and
            Solanum Macrocarpon fruit
4.1.3    Preparation of the soups
4.1.4    Soup preference
4.1.5    Storage of dried Carica papaya and Solanum Macrocarpon chips

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1.1    Discussion
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
REFERENCES

APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                          INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the study
Most Nigerian dishes consumed have local variations and include ingredients available in that locality, which may have different names according to the region. These variations may be a function of the socio-economic status of the cook or factors such as educational level, food taboos, cultural and religious practices, cost, season and nutrition knowledge (Bender and Bender, 1982). The amount of food one eats is just as important as the quality of the food, and to maintain the best nutrition status, an individual’s diet must be adequate both in quality and quantity. The community feeding pattern and nutritional status of individual depends to a large extent on the diet consumed and physical activity that are involved (Madukwe and Ene-Obong, 2002). The nutrition requirements of all the family members can be met by varying the quantity of food items and by proper combination of foods. Nutritionists and other health professionals are increasingly alarmed at the frequent and growing disparity between the amount of food people need to meet dietary and energy needs and the amount of food they actually consume (Nutrition Update, 2004).

A major contributor to our nation’s overall poor health status is insufficient intake of required food nutrients which are related to food insecurity, diseases; excessive and/or unbalanced food intake (Latham, 1997).


Most recipes are not established in Nigeria. Based on this, little research was conducted in this area including other developing countries. Researchers, who are willing to assess the nutrient intake of diverse food groups in Nigeria, have to rely mostly on the few food composition Tables available (Oguntona, Odunmbaku & Ottun, 1999).
Most of these Tables contain information on raw foods and very little on cooked foods which call for need to fill the existing gap on Nigerian local foods (Onabanjo & Oguntona, 2003). Fruits and vegetables remain an important source of nutrients in many parts of the world. They offer advantages over dietary supplements because of low cost and wide availability. They also contribute significantly to food security (Kenny, 2002). The accurate measurement of fruits and vegetable intake is essential to provide valid messages about fruit and vegetables and health. (FAO\WHO, 2004).

Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) is commonly known as mbuer in Tiv, okwuru ezi in lgbo, ibepe in Yoruba and gwanda in Hausa. Garden egg (Solanum macrocarpon L) is known as mngishim in Tiv, anara in lgbo, yalo in Hausa and igba in Yoruba. The fruits had numerous nutritional and

health benefits. Its consumption aids digestion of other foods rich in vitamins A, B and C. It is one of the cheapest economically important fruits that is grown and consumed for its nutritional content and characteristics in the country (Baiyewu & Amusa, 2005).

The ripe Carica papaya L fruit is consumed fresh as a breakfast or dessert fruit. Green or unripe fruits are used as ingredients in salads and cooked dishes (De La Cruz, Gutierrez & Garcia, 2002). Its fruits consist mostly of water, carbohydrate, low calories and rich in natural vitamins A and C and minerals (Oloyede, 2005).


Garden egg (Solanum Macrocarpon L) is a highly valued delicacy and constituent of the African food. The benefits of eating (Solanum Macrocarpon L) extend far beyond ensuring that one’s desire for a good meal is satisfied. It can be eaten raw or cooked and commonly consumed during wedding ceremony because it symbolizes fertility and blessing. It is used in soups and stews in their fresh forms (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF), 1997). The unripe Carica Papaya L fruit has a high latex content that may make it unsuitable for raw consumption. Unripe green Carica Papaya L is used as vegetable. It does not contain carotene but contains all other nutrients. However, raw shredded green pawpaw is often used in Asian salads, or cut into pieces and eaten with vegetables (Okeke, Ene-Obong, Uzuegbunam, Ozioko and Kuhnlein, 2008).

The majority of the populace has known these fruits to be eaten in their fresh forms. However, in Tiv communities the unripe/green Carica Papaya L fruits are peeled, sliced and cook fresh or dried in the sun and used as a vegetable just like pumpkin leaves with groundnut, and or melon seeds (egusi) in soup form. The dried Carica Papaya L soup is prepared with either groundnut paste or benniseed (sesame seed) as thickeners just like egusi. This soup is known and referred to as “Igyande mbuer” in Tiv. The Solanum macrocarpon L fruit is also sliced and eaten fresh or dried and used as a vegetable in melon, sesame or groundnut soups called “Igyande mngishi in Tiv language. These methods of processing reduce the issue of food insecurity and make the fruits available all year round and diversify their food use. In Nigeria, soups form major part of our meal, there is no part of the country that doesn’t have particular soups that is peculiar to that area and most of these soups may have some promising potentials which may be beneficial to the entire country. Researching about some Nigerian soups will not only diversify the food use of these soups but it will also reduce the issue of food insecurity in the country......

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