CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL SNACKS PRODUCED FROM Citrullus vulgaris S, Glycine max L, Arachis hypogea L AND Sclerotium tuberygii

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ABSTRACT

Melon snack was produced by the conventional method in which melon and ground yeast was used as the main ingredients, in addition to other ingredients. The proportion of melon and ground yeast were varied while the other ingredients were kept constant so as to determine the best combination that would give a good quality snack. The combination of 70% melon, 8.81% ground yeast and 21.19% other ingredients was used as the control sample, since this combination formed the best dough needed for the production of the best quality snack. Melon was then replaced with 10–70% concentrations of soybean and groundnut to determine their effect on product quality. The snacks were processed with different quantity of processing water (16 – 24ml), packaged with different packaging materials (plantain leaves, polyethylene and aluminium foil) and cooked for different periods of time (1 – 9 hours). Analyses were carried out on the snacks for proximate composition, antinutrient content, sensory properties, hardness and compressive strength, vitamins B1 and B2 and amino acid content. The results showed that snacks obtained from 10–20% and 10–30% substitution of melon with soybean and groundnut, respectively, were of acceptable qualities, with 10% level of substitution having the best acceptability. The results also showed that the best melon snack (65.7g) was processed with 20ml of water, packaged with plantain leaves and cooked for 5 hours. Snacks in which melon was substituted with 10% and 20% soybean had moisture content of 50.56% and 52.60%, protein content of 19.01% and 20.00%, fat content of 5.01% and 4.22%, ash content of 5.05% and 4.85%, crude fibre content of 2.87% and 2.33% and carbohydrate content of 17.5% and 16.0%, respectively. Snacks in which melon was substituted with 10–70% groundnut had ranges of moisture content from 48.35–50.01%, protein content from 19.27– 21.09%, fat content from 8.13–8.81%, ash content from 3.37–4.93%, crude fibre content from 2.62–3.69% and carbohydrate content from 14.10–15.63%. The vitamin B1 content of the snacks decreased as the percentage of substitution with both soybean and groundnut increased. Snacks that contained soybean lost their vitamin B2 while the vitamin B2 content of snacks that contained groundnut increased as the percentage of substitution with groundnut was increased. The hardness and compressive strength values of the snacks increased as the percentage of substitution with soybean increased and decreased as the percentage of the substitution with groundnut increased due to higher content of oil in groundnut. Snacks that contained 10% soybean and 10% groundnut had higher content of amino acids than the control snack.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER 1
1.0       Introduction

CHAPTER 2
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Types of Snacks
2.1.1 Potato chips and potato-based products
2.1.2 Crackers
2.1.3    Pretzels
2.1.4    Confectionery (sugar- rich products)
2.1.5    Nut- based snacks
2.1.6    Corn snacks
2.1.7    Meat- based snacks
2.1.8    Traditional snacks in Nigeria
2.2       Soybean in snack foods
2.3       Melon in snack foods
2.4       Groundnut in snack foods

CHAPTER 3
3.0       Materials and methods
3.1       Materials procurement
3.2       Preparation of melon, soybean, groundnut and ground yeast pastes/flour
3.3       Preparation of melon snack (Ikpan)
3.4       Replacement of melon with soybean /groundnut pastes
3.5       Effect of other processing methods
3.6       Analysis of samples
3.6.1 Proximate analysis
3.6.2 Analysis of anti-nutrients
3.6.3 Sensory analysis
3.6.4 Determination of hardness and compressive strength of snacks using MonsantoTensometer
3.6.5 Determination of vitamins B1 and B2 in the snacks
3.6.6 Analysis of Amino acids
3.7       Experimental design/ data analysis

CHAPTER 4
4.0       Results and Discussion
4.1       Proximate composition of snacks
4.2       Anti- nutrients in the snacks
4.3       Vitamins B1 and B2 in the snacks
4.4       Hardness and Compressive Strength of the snacks
4.5       Effects of processing on sensory properties of the snacks
4.6       Amino acid profile of the snacks

CHAPTER 5
5.0       Conclusions and Recommendations
References
Appendices

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Snack foods are an integral part of the diet and have been, over a period of time, commercially exploited on a wide scale. Increasing awareness amongst the consuming public demands the production of high protein, cost effective, convenient and highly acceptable snacks. Meals are everyday eating events structured by the frequency of food consumption, by food items appropriate to a meal and even by the order of dishes in the menu (Douglas and Gross, 1981; Mäkelä, 2000; Poulain, 2002). Eating events have typically been categorized as either main meals (structured meals) or snacks (unstructured eating events between meals). These categories have been used in both cultural (Mäkelä, 2000) and nutritional studies (Kearney et al., 2001; Poulain, 2002). However, snacks are becoming increasingly popular (Poulain, 2002; Devine et al., 2003) and may be added to the diet or consumed in place of traditional meals (Bellisle et al., 1997; Poulain, 2002). The concept of snacks is complex; it may comprise confectionery items or beverages only (Andersson and Rössner, 1996), “a snacking food” (like chips) or even light meals (Poulain, 2002; Chamontin et al., 2003).

The term “snack” or “snack food” is difficult to define or categorize. The dictionary meaning of snack is a “tit bit” which is a small meal in the broadest sense (Macrae, 1993). Snacking can be described as the problem-free consumption of easy-to-handle, miniature-portioned, hot or cold products in solid or liquid form, which need little or no preparation and are intended to satisfy the occasional “pang” of hunger. Thus snacks should be convenient and in manageable portions and they should satisfy short-term hunger (Macrae, 1993).The Federal Department of Rural Development in her book “Recipes for Commonly Eaten Meals in Nigeria” FMARD (2006), defined snacks as small meals eaten between main meals, and states further that a good snack is nutrient dense and each bite contributes to the nutrient intake of healthy individuals.

Snacks include sandwiches made with fresh bread or toasted bread accompanied with potato or vegetable crisps and a little salad, rolls, baps, French bread, croissants, pitta bread, cut through and filled with a variety of fillings (Foskett et al., 2004). Traditional snacks such as “okpa”, “moin-moin”, “akara”, melon snack, “agidi”, etc. are produced from legumes and cereals using different processing methods like steaming, frying, baking, drying, etc. Melon snack is a traditional snack made from melon, ground yeast and other minor ingredients.

Variation in nutrient contents of melon, soybean and groundnut (especially with regards to lysine and methionine), price and functional properties necessitated the combination of these local seeds to produce traditional snack with a more balanced nutrient that is more affordable to the low income earners in Nigeria.


Objective of study

The general objective of study was to produce melon snack (Ikpan) with a combination of different legumes.


Specific objectives

The specific objectives were:

(i)           Producing melon snack using the conventional method in which melon and ground yeast served as the main ingredients, and determining the best combination of melon and ground yeast in the snack.

(ii)         Determining the effect of replacing melon with soybean and groundnut on the quality of the snack.

(iii)       Determining the effects of quantity of processing water and cooking time on the hardness and compressive strength of the cake, and quality characteristics of the snack.

(iv)       Analysing the effect of processing on the chemical composition of the snack......

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