The research is “A study of the contributions of selected Muslim scholars to the dissemination of Islamic knowledge in Wamakko Local Government, Sokoto state from 1980-2020”. Among the research objectives is to evaluate the methodology and impact of some selected Mufassirun in Muslim areas.Also, to identify styles and methodolgy of reform and impact of the scholars teachings through Tafsir, its also to identify solution(s) to the stated problems of Tafsir through the study of the activitiesof the personalities understudy. The selected scholars for the study are; Shiekh Sidi Attahir Ibrahim, Sheikh Ja‟afar Mahmud Adam, and Sheikh Muhammad Awwal Abba Aj. The research discussed their methodology in Tafsȋ r, their sources, the establishment of their Tafsȋ r circles, how people view their Tafsȋ r, the area of emphasis of each, their role in reforming Ummah, their contributions towards peace between muslins and non-Muslims.The challenges encounteredd in the process of desserminating of Tafsir.The lessons to be learnt in their contributions,among others.In the process of carrying out this research, the instruments used for collecting data include; Radio cassettes, audio and video CD‟s plates, interviews with the families of the scholars as well as their students. The researchfound out their contribution in all sectors, such as religion, social, economy, education, peace and unity, among others, through their Tafsȋ r. Summary, recommendations and conclusion were also being provided at the end of the research.

• Background to the Study
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful. All thanks areto Allah (SWT), the Creator of the universe, Who revealed the ultimate guidance, the Qur‟an. May the peace and blessings of Allah be unto the seal of Prophets, Muhammad (S.A.W.) who demonstrated exemplary life and therefore became unique model for all ages. Similarly, may the Almighty Allah continue to spray His blessings on the companions of the Prophet (SAW), his household and family for their steadfastness and commitment to the success of the Prophet‟s (SAW) mission.

Allah (SWT) in His infinite mercy after the creation of man and decreeing man to dwell on the earth, He promised to reveal guidance to man for him to know His Creator and create peace with Him so that he could control his environments and reap from the abundant endowments that he is blessed with. Allah says:

Whoever works righteousness whether male or female, while is true believer, verily to him We will give a good life and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do.(al-Nahl:97)

The comprehensive and encompassing nature of the Qur‟an invites to mastery and proficiency. In this regard, Almighty Allah (SWT) endowed His Prophet (SAW) with the faculties of reasoning and comprehension. Eventually, He commanded him to explain and clarify the message of the Qur‟an. The Qur‟an commands:

With clear signs and we have sent down the reminder to you (Muhammad) so you may explain to mankind as to what was sent down to them so that they may think about it. (al-Nahl:44).

The Qur‟an as a book of guidance is categorized into three segments. There is the aspect explaining the concept of Tauhid and this constitutes one-third of the Qur‟anic message.Such chapters and verses discuss about the Creator, His nature and attributes. They also emphasize His absolute right to be worshippedalone. The second aspect explains the rules and regulations of the religion and life. The third aspect is about the historic events as they affected the preceding generations. Their behaviors towards the Prophets (AS) were extensively discussed to serve as lessons for the later generations. Therefore, the presentations of the Qur‟an on the said segments require expertise for analysis. At times, the Qur‟anic approach presents its instruction in detail or general term while it addresses few. In some situations, its manner of instruction is in restricted term while it is addressing many. In some instances, it presents its facts in a clear and unambiguous manner. On the other hand, there are submissions that seem to be ambiguous.. In view of this, the Prophet (SAW) would explain, interpretes the contents of the Qur‟an to his followers.

The Ṣ ahabah who were always in the company of the Prophet (SAW) became inquisitive and keenly interested to know more about the Qur‟an. Abu abd al- Rahman al-sulami (d.75AH) reported that whenever people like Usman Ibn Affan, Abdullahi Ibn Mas‟ud and others learnt ten verses of the Qur‟an from the Prophet (SAW), they would not proceed further until they had understood whatever ideas and regulations those verses contained. They used to say “we learnt Qur‟an, and studied its ideas and injunctions all together “Ibn Taymiyyah (2011:18)The knowledge that the Sahabah acquired from the Prophet (SAW) made them to qualify to interpret the Qur‟an. .It suffices to say that Allah (SWT) had ascertained their faith as correct and their actions as worthy of emulation when He declares:


In other verse:

So, if they believe as ye believe, they are, indeed on the right path; but if they turn back it is they who are in schism.(al-Baqarah: 137).

Allah will be pleased with them, and they well- pleased with Him"( al-Bayyinah:08).

After the death of the Prophet (SAW), the Sahabah became the teachers of Tafsir and the custodians of religious.They carried out the responsibility of disseminating the religion and in the process they encountered new issues that subjected them to exercise their discretion in offering solutions to such problems (Ijtihad). In view of their in-depth knowledge of the Qur‟an and Hadith, they were able to proffer solutions to many issues. This contributed to widening the scope of Tafsir. Therefore, many among the Sahabah such as Abdullah b. Abbas, Abdullah b. Mas;ud and Zaid b. Thabit, Ubay b. Ka‟ab etc became prominent scholars in the fields of Tafsir, (Imam al-Suyuti (nd, vol.2 p. 193).

The Tabi‟un who succeeded the Sahabah (RA) inherited the knowledge of their predecessors Sahabah. Their period is always considered as the flourishing period of Islamic scholarship. It was during this period that many Islamic sciences, such as Ulum al-Qur‟an, Usul al-Hadith, Uṣ ul al-Fiqh and Uṣ ul al-Tafsir emerged.Likewise, it was in this period that their Arabic language was boosted by promulgating many principles such as Nahwu,(grammar) Balagha (rhetoric), Ṣ arf (morphology), Mantiq (logic), etc. Importantly, it was in this period that Tafsir, havingbeen separated from Hadith, was officially compiled. In addition, this period experienced growth of Fiqh (Juristic views). All of these efforts have tremendously added to the understanding of the Qur‟an and hence developed the Qur‟anic exegesis.

The trend of Islamic scholarship in the period of the Tabi‟un has produced many outstanding scholars particularly in Tafsir. These include: Mujahid (d.140 A.H/722C.E.) Ata‟u b. Abi Rabah (d.114A.H/732C.E),Ikrimah(d.105 A.H/713C.E.) and Tawus (d.106A.H/724C.E.). All were students of Ibn Abbas in Makkah. Others were Zaid b. Aslam,(d.130A.H/747C.E.) Abu al-Aliyah (d.90A.H/708C.E), Muhammad b. Ka‟ab al-Qurazi (d.117A.H/735C.E.)They were all students of Ubay b. Ka‟ab in Madinah. Likewise, In Iraq, students of Ibn Mas‟ud include: Alqamah b.Qais (d.102A.H/702C.E.), Masruq,(d.682A.H/682C.E.) and Aswad b. Yazid (d.75A.H/694 C.E.S) and Hasan al-Basri.(al-Dhahabi M, 1975:76).

The contributions of the aforementioned scholars and their likes brought about the establishment of centers of learning places such as Makkah, Madinah, Basra, Kufa and Sham. These centers of learning have immensely contributed to the dissemination of Islamic knowledge and sustainability of the learning process.

Therefore, knowledge of Tafsir was developed with the introduction of Islam in every locality. When Islam was introduced in Kanem Borno in the 9th C.E. and in Hausa land in 11th C.E.and with the Jihad of Usmanu Danfodiyo the in 1804 C. E, Islamic scholarship became widespread.(Gada, 2004).

Tafsir of Qur‟an in Kanem Borno known as tarjumo meaning; translation of the Qur‟an from Arabic to indigenous language of Kanembu (Kanuri) Hausa, Mandara and Fulfulde (Sani, 2005:14). As Islam had entered Borno, learning of the Qur‟an became necessary to understand Islamic religious obligations. As a result, Tafsir of Qur‟an became one of the most important fields of learning. In this regards the contributions of the SayfawaUlamah was considered as unique and remarkable because they were the first non- Arabs to have introduced the Tarjamah of the Qur‟an as a method of Tafsir suitable to non- Arabs speakers who did not understand the language of the Qur‟an. (Sani, 2009).

Sheikh Abdullahi submitted with regards to learning Tafsȋ r that:”I learnt from this Sheikh (Uthman bn fodio) the Tafsȋ r of the Qur‟ān from the beginning to the end many times more than I can remember.” (Sani, 2005:110).Sheikh Abdullahi put more efforts in studying the Qur‟ān. As a result, he produced Ḍ iyā‟ual- Ta‟awilfȋ ma‟ani al-Tanzȋ l and other books of Tafsȋ r such as Kifayah al-Ḍ u‟afah al-Sudan, and some books in Ulum al-Qur‟an in general.

Sheikh Abdullahi produced six books, three of them are on Tafsȋ r and the remaining three are on the sciences of Qur‟an. His Tafsȋ r books are: Ḍ iya‟u al- ta‟wil fȋ ma‟āni al-Tanzȋ l (written in 1816) Kifāyatu al-Ḍ u‟afa‟i al-Sudan fi bayānTafsȋ r al-Qur‟ān (written in 1822) and Nail al su‟il min Tafsir al-Rasul (written in 1796).(Sani,2005: 183).

In the process of writing his Ḍiyā‟u, a number of significant books of Tafsirwas consulted .They include: Jalālain, Lubāb, al-Ta‟awil fi Ma‟ani al-Tanzil of al-Khazim, Anwar al-Tanzil wa Asrar al-Ta‟awil of al-Bayḍ awhi, Jami‟i al-

Muharrar al-Wajiz fi Tafsir al-Kitab al-azim of ibn Aliyyah. Others include: Mufatihu al-Ghaib of Imām al-Rāzi, Madāriku al-Tanzil wa haqa‟iq al-Ta‟awil of al- Nasafi, Ma‟ālim al-Tanzil of Baghwi, among others.(Hamid,1989:2).

Agreat number of the Mufassirun does not concentrate on conveying the Qur‟ānic message to the audience, instead they interpret the Qur‟ān to suit their ideologies.. Thus, is also among the reasons some of the Mufassirun use Tafsȋ r to achieve their personal interest. This is responsible for the disunity among Muslims in Nigeria.

In the same vein, there are some scholars who have contributed in enlightening as well as educating the Ummah through their sessions of Tafsȋ r. Some of them wrote in Tafsȋ r or Tarjamah of the Qur‟ān. They include Sheikh Abubakar Mahmud Gumi, and Sheikh Nasiru Kabara. There are some whom did not write any work of Tafsȋ r but contributed a lot in that direction through verbal presentation of Tafsir. For example: We have Sheikh Muhammad Awwal Abba Aji, Sheikh Sidi Attahir Ibrahim, Sheikh Ja‟afar Mahmud Adam, Sheikh Halliru Binji, Sheikh Ibrahim Sale, Sheikh Isa Waziri, Sheikh Usman Dahiru Bauchi, among others.

In the light of the above, this rsearch is designed to study the approach and impact of some Mufassirun such as Shaikh Sidi Attahir Ibrahim (d.2004 C.E.), Sheikh Ja‟afar Mahmud Adam (d.2007 C.E.),and Shaikh Muhammad Awwal Abba Aji(d.2009 C.E.) on the religious life of Muslims in the contemporary Muslim part of Nigeria.

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