The Purpose of this research is to examine the potentials of renewable energy (RE) and to enhance energy security (ES) within the present Jos Metropolis metropolis. The production and use of renewable energy has been identified as part of the solution to be adopted and to improve the current energy crisis, and as a necessary inclusive contrivance towards creating a sustainable city. Most cities in Nigeria are faced with energy problem. The constant energy shortage has result in the deterioration of Jos Metropolis urban environment. The main focus of this thesis is to create a sustainable Jos Metropolis city by utilizing the energy potentials identified.

Urban population growth is unavoidable around the world. Therefore, the demand and supply of energy use will defiantly increase. An explicit and proactive method to enhance the preserved concept to energy security (ES) is suggested in this thesis. By applying, producing, and maintaining such phenomenon, this will benefit the Jos Metropolis environment and its urban slums.

In order to achieve this, the present energy production and management methods were analysed; three Interviews were carried out, books, articles, journals and online sources were examined. Also, a specific indicator such as technology was identified to examine the vulnerability and less effectiveness to energy security (ES). Thus, measuring the current energy situation within this predefined urban area, the indicators measure a very poor urban energy security (ES). Herein, some solutions were proposed which constituted the recommendations for this study.

Key Words: Renewable Energy (RE), Energy Security (ES), Urban Energy (UE), Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

1.1 Background of study
In developing nations nowadays, urban energy security is not just essential for enhancing a good quality of life for the urban dwellers, this also increases the effects of creating sustainable urban development and poverty eradication within the urban areas. Nowadays, energy crisis is subjected to climate change and non-sustainable future which also causes degradation of our environment and makes it vulnerable. One of the most challenging task in recent urban areas is the comparative evaluation of energy security and climate change alongside modern approaches and policies which actually occurs under certain conditions of socio-economic and demographical change.

This piece of work proves that, urban energy security, if managed, planned and implemented well, creates an essential benefit for urban dwellers and this aspect will enhance the day to day life of people and the environment. People have come to understand that all these factors together with the protection of our environment make nature liveable, healthier and above all sustainable. Within the twenty-first century, sustainability has become the main challenge in cities and arguable the major focus in present-day science and research. (Lakala & Vehmas 2011)

Urbanization is seen as an important universal inclination regarding energy crisis as urban areas are the world’s most habitat places. Energy security and renewables thus play a critical role in providing valuable ecosystems within our ever-growing urban environments which in effect makes it sustainable.

Though this research basically focuses on urban energy security in a developing country, a brief over view on the development history of urban energy security in western countries will be mentioned. This is due to the fact that Nigeria anticipates in planning and regulating its guidelines in urban energy security. Hence it will be important to understand the main principle in energy security and its developmental principles from its origin.

Cities of today have to be competitive and at the same time sustainable. Looking at the concept of sustainability it is almost certain that most developing countries might get a bad reputation with regards to sustainability, renewable energy and energy security is convenience as often prioritized over environmental awareness. (Liveable Cities 2007)

The problem is not the lack of the necessary legislation, but rather the fact that the implementation thereof seems far more complex than anticipated. On the other hand, in some cases, it is often argued that a few developing countries are "over planning" in regards to energy and green spaces and are therefore wasting valuable land to be used for development.

The challenges and obstacles of achieving Energy security through renewable energy was regarded as an internal affair. But recently, research has shown that some of the major energy security challenges have become global. Stated by the executive director of IEA Maria Van der Hoeven, “energy security was seen primarily as a concern of industrialized countries”, but today “the challenge has become global”. The recent geopolitical instability and conflict in some of the world’s main oil and gas countries has been a global debate on energy security most especially in Eastern Europe, North Africa and West Africa regions. (Karel 2014)

During the 60s, energy security was engulfing just around oil which today the whole definition has changes in the last 40 years, since the creation of IEA. The whole concept of energy security has also change with respect to the working direction to achieve it changes. This has almost come to conclusion that, energy security has no unified solution as to handle it rather, each country should find its own solution as the challenges is now a global issue and thus needs new ways of exploring to develop a solid multilateral corporation. (Anthony 2009, 104)

Some of the obstacle of energy security is also regarding as a result of large scale electricity generation which should be transmitted to other areas and thus required a huge project which may requires billions of dollars and will also attract more public attention to it large effect on local budget and environment (Flyvbjerg 2003).

Such mega-projects are especially threatened by the risk of overruns because of their vulnerability to sunk cost of investment and high transaction cost due to complex contractual situation and their unique character at assets (Globerman 1996). Some activists stated campaigns that most energy producing companies should enhance in climate change and decarbonize the future global greenhouse gas emission path, while maintaining energy security in other to be able to address climate change (Nadejda et al 2009, 104).

This thesis therefore intends to explore what value(s) is attached to renewable energy and the various schemes set up for conserving it in Nigeria with respect to its energy security as a resilient mechanism in the Jos Metropolis urban setup, what are the possible ways to renounce in case of crisis and a comprehensive picture (scenario) of its future snap short (Resilient aspect as it sustainable concern), in practicing climate justice by reducing climate change.

• Statement of the Problem
Energy uses have contributed to a lot of environmental mutations in the Jos Metropolis region with subsequent changes in the environment and have brought forth issues like environmental destructions that have led to climate change and related problems. The continuous degradation of the environment by energy use has actually exposed our natural habitat and its livelihood to suffer in the process of global warming, poor energy use causes high basic electricity bills, reduces the value of our infrastructures and also increases the negative impact on the environment. Poor energy produced methods such as Kerosene and Charcoal which is derived from carbonize wood and LPG creates high percentage of carbon and thereby destroys the environment and the livelihood, is what is commonly used in the Jos Metropolis region.

Barriers to renewable energy technologies in Nigeria (Jos Metropolis) include the fact that Jos Metropolis has varieties of energy means which could be produced through affordable cost and means. Thus, many issues obstruct this development such as Politics, economic, experience and technology points to substantial market barriers and also market failure which on the other hand prevents the development of renewables in this region of the country.

Jos Metropolis over the past years has suffered from rapid transformation caused mainly by energy and environmental degradation. As the economic capital of Nigeria, most of the main activities constitute of businesses both industrial and small scale with the major backbone to be energy. Today, the story is different as Jos Metropolis has experienced a rapid transformation in both its infrastructures and environment. These problems are more evident in Jos Metropolis that in recent days has witness a huge migrant population than over the years.

The Jos Metropolis area is composed of fairly undulating energy sources associated with great potentials, thus, proving an additional advantage that has necessitated the establishment of renewable energy. This area with such location advantages is exposed to considerable population pressure, energy shortage, housing and economic issues. Health care has also been a major concern with a high level of illnesses in this area of the country which is mostly cause by pollution and gives ways for human to cut down trees for burning to provide a source of energy for cooking and other household requirements. Given the advantages plants have over our environment and further increase its rate of degradation. More wild life and biodiversity’s have emerged and aquatic ecosystems are now affected.

Hence, the combination of these factors has influence the various stages of energy use and energy production evolution that has brought about problems and changes in environmental degradation.

• Objectives of study
• To determine the potentials for using Renewable Energy Security to achieve Energy Security?

• To determine Jos Metropolis area current renewable energy indicators?

• To determine the current renewable energy indicators in the Jos Metropolis as compared to other cities?

• To determine how renewable energy is a resilient mechanism to enhance energy security in the Jos Metropolis?

• Research questions
• How great are the potentials for using Renewable Energy Security to achieve Energy Security?

• What are Jos Metropolis current renewable energy indicators?

• What are the current renewable energy indicators in the Jos Metropolis as compared to other cities?

• How is renewable energy, a resilient mechanism to enhance energy security in the Jos Metropolis?

• Significance of study
This research will be relevant to the general public of Nigeria and Jos Metropolis. Actually, very little research has been done in this city on the said topic which is believed that, policy makers will adopt some controversial point that will be discovered in energy security such as,

Economic growth
Health and education

The direct physical impacts of climate change, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, heat waves, and droughts are likely to impact energy security in a number of ways. Issues at the nexus of water and energy and power grid resilience have gained substantial and growing attention in the literature, indicating that policymakers are focusing on these issues. Previous reports on the physical impacts of climate change, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate assessments, have focused more on the impacts of climate change on natural systems and human health. Even in developed countries, energy infrastructure is susceptible to disruption by weather conditions.

Climate policies may be compatible, or may work at cross-purposes with energy security. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and promote energy security can also be mutually reinforcing. Energy conservation is seen as a “no regrets” strategy for enhancing energy security while reducing climate change—at least in developed nations. (Marcus & Jay 2013)

However, the risks associated with energy security affect national economies on a daily basis. Climate policies can undermine energy security by limiting near term energy supply options. Consequently, greenhouse gas emissions reductions would be less disruptive to energy security if they were implemented only after key technological solutions— such as carbon capture and sequestration—become available for large- scale deployment. (Marcus & Jay 2013, 33, 35)

This thesis hopes contribute to the understanding of the dynamism of Renewable energy and energy security that changing patterns over time, which is an issue that is of interest to economist, Ecologist and Environmental Scientist.

Hence, it will contribute to creating awareness about the irrational exploitation of lots of renewable that will cause a subsequent migration and extinction of some fauna and flora due to the destruction of their habitats. These are valuable resources needed by man for his own survival. If we destroy the forest for energy use or other reasons, then we destroy our own means of surviving. It will cover the scope as starting point the year 1960 for the following reasons as its limitations: This was the year that Nigeria gained its political independence. The period in which most Rural and Urban areas were created, a lot of transformation took place during this period.

Therefore, it is important to create awareness of public attention to the importance for maintaining the state of the natural environment for recreation of industries and tourism and also provide baseline data for further academic research.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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