Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) is still a burning issue in the context of developing countries like Bangladesh as many diseases related to it are causing the maximum number of child‟s death. This study focused on evaluating knowledge level of the participants on WASH among the mother groups of under-5 children in two urban slums located at Muea community in South West Region.

The research is targeted to mother groups because it has been found that the diarrhoeal diseases caused due to poor sanitation and hygienic condition as well as impure drinking water is the leading cause of under-5 mortality and morbidity. One on one interview was conducted with 70 mothers at respected areas through a structured questionnaire. The general objective of this study is to systematically assess level of the knowledge on water, sanitation and hygiene among the mother groups of under-5 children.

The design for the study is cross-sectional descriptive study. The data are collected from the mother groups of under-5 children from the Muea community of City Corporation Area of South West Region. All the data has been collected through one on one interview using a predefined questionnaire.

The findings/results of this research may not be generalized to other Thana, Districts and the country as a whole, as it done within a limited time with a short sample size in a cluster area. Among the mothers, 56 of them are married and living with their husband. The mean income shows as CFA 6511 only which is in line with the national GDP. Level of education found significantly poor as 28 respondents said they only can sign their name and 7 respondents are completely illiterate. The concept of drinking pure water found significantly low among the mothers; 40 respondents said they use direct tap water in preparing their baby‟s food. In terms of waste disposal (both liquid and solid), respondents generally through it here and there, this pollutes the environment significantly. The knowledge on the urgency of sanitary latrine was also found poor. 60 respondents expressed that they don‟t know the right techniques of hand washing.

• Background of the study
In many countries there exists a high prevalence of water and sanitation related diseases, causing many people, children in particular, to fall ill or even die. Improved hygiene practices are essential if transmission routes of water and sanitation related diseases are to be cut. Whereas appropriate hygiene education can bring about the intention to change hygiene behaviour, for most hygiene behaviours appropriate water and sanitation facilities are needed to allow people to transform intention to change into real change.

Access to water and sanitation is a fundamental human right and essential to life, health and dignity. Timely and adequate provision of clean water and sanitation services to uprooted people is particularly important, given the vulnerability of their situation. The UN believes that all refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced people and returnees should have access to adequate drinking water whether they stay in camps or in urban areas (ECOSOC, 2002).

The provision of adequate sanitation services is equally important. Proper disposal of all waste as well as control of the carriers of communicable diseases, including mosquitoes, rats, mice and flies, is crucial to mitigate health risks and prevent epidemics.

Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) is a pre-condition for people to acquire good health, well-being and even benefit from economic development. Without it, the increasing rate of population and economic growth tend to negatively affect the most vulnerable segments in society: women, children and marginalized communities.

It is obvious that to reduce infant and child mortality, improve quality of life, and reduce poverty, greater efforts and investment are needed to increase safe water, affordable hygienic sanitation and adequate hygiene promotion. Improvement of water, sanitation and hygiene promotion provides a range of benefits for people‟s well-being, particularly the poor and marginalized. Improved sanitation and promotion of hygienic behaviour reduce health risks, and eventually contribute to the socio-economic development of the nation.

The disease burden from unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is estimated at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrhoeal diseases. The risk factor defined as including multiple factors, namely the ingestion of unsafe water, lack of water linked to inadequate hygiene, contact with unsafe water, poor personal and domestic hygiene and agricultural practices, and inadequate development and management of water resources or water systems (Glass Report, 2009).

• Statement of problem
Inadequate and unsafe water, poor sanitation, and unsafe hygiene practices are main causes of the diarrhoea, which results 50 out of thousand under- 5 child deaths in Bangladesh (DGHS, 2011).

Water, sanitation and hygiene are also linked to many other diseases that kill children or stunt their development, including helminth infections, trachoma, cholera, fluorosis and arsenicosis. There is also emerging evidence linking better hand-washing practices with reduced incidence of acute respiratory infections.

In the context of Bangladesh, sanitation coverage is just 39% (Water Aid, 2008) which results in widespread diseases the majority of people do not have a latrine and have to defecate in the open. Water-related diseases are very common in Bangladesh but for the majority of the population the causes of ill health are shrouded in superstition.

Diarrhoeal morbidity rates are increasing. The only way to sustainably reduce this massive burden of disease is through the use of safe drinking water, sanitation and improved hygiene practices, in particular hand washing with soap.

• Research objectives
General objectives
To assess the knowledge on water, sanitation and hygiene among the mother groups of under-5 children.

Specific objectives
• To describe the socio demographic, cultural information of respondents.

• To find out the incidence of disease due to unhygienic practices

• To identify gaps between knowledge regarding WASH.

• Research questions
For the purpose of the study, three research questions were identified and focused on these questions, the questionnaire was developed.

• What is the knowledge on water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among mothers of under-5 children?

• What are the incidences of disease due unhygienic hand wash practices?

• What are the gaps between the knowledge on WASH among the mother groups of under- 5 children?

• Significance of the study
Many people believe that simply providing a fresh, clean water supply will substantially reduce water-borne illnesses. What most people do not know is that safe hygiene practices and access to sanitation are crucial for combating the main health threats to children under five, in particular diarrhoea.

In recent years, sanitation has raised up the international policy agenda. In 2002, sanitation was included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and specifically within MDG 7 Target 10 which sets the aim of halving „by 2015‟. The proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation yet at national level in most developing countries, hygiene and sanitation do not yet receive much attention, despite important health implications (Ahmed, et al., 2002).

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene is linked in many ways to people‟s livelihoods and sustainable development in general; it is an important input not just for Target 10 of Millennium Development Goal 7 but for all of the Goals. It is a key input for the achievement of universal primary education and reductions in child mortality (Goals 2 and 4) and is directly linked to the eradication of poverty and hunger, the empowerment of women, improvements in maternal health and the reduction of diseases (Goals 1, 3, 5 and 6).

In addition to coverage disparities between regions, there are significant inequities within the districts: clear rural-urban disparities as well as coverage and service level disparities between richer and poorer households. The urban poor usually have very low access to water and sanitation services, and pockets of people - such as indigenous groups-often have even lower access.

The Alma-Ata conference held in 1978 also had determined an adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation as one of the element of primary health care (PHC).The study is targeted to the mother groups of under-5 years of age children because the diseases associated with water, sanitation and hygiene are the leading cause of under-5 mortality and morbidity and the mothers are directly linked with the child‟s health as they are the one who take care of their children (Gautam, et al., 2010).

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 45 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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