This research work on the water drainage problems (A case study of IMT campus 3 Enugu), the scope of this research work covers every activity which has to do with the drainage problems, background to the subject matter, rational for the study and the limitations of the study, the research review as, the related literature about the authors and scholars, facts and opinions. The findings of this study through the further research. Finally, base on the findings, a numbers of recommendations were made so that campus 3 IMT Enugu should ensure a good water drainage system within the campus to permit a perfect seepage, discharging, flooding of water and effluent.

• Background of study
Some aspects of Civil Engineering is devoted to the planning and construction of facilities to drain the high ways or streets and carry run-offs.

Removal of surface water from the road or street is known as surface drainage; drainage as distinct from plumbing is a system which collects waste products from baths. Wash – basins, water closets and sinks together with rain and discharges into public sewers, septic tanks, soakaways or cesspools.

The construction of drain is therefore principally concerned of the Manson. It is accomplished by constructing the road so that it has a crown and by sloping the shoulders and adjacent areas so as to control the flow of water either towards existing natural drainage, such as open ditches, or into a storm drainage system of catch basin and underground pipes. If a storm drainage system is used as it would be with city streets, the design Engineer must give consideration to the total area drainage unto the street, the maximum rate of run-off expected, the duration of the design storm, the amount of ponding allowable at each catchments area and the proposed spacing of catch basin along the street. From this information the desired capacity of the individual catch basin and the size of the underground piping network are calculated.

In designing facilities to carry run-offs from pavements, the Engineers must determine the area to be drained, the maximum probable precipitation over the drainage basin, the highest expected run-off rate, and then using this information must calculate the required capacity of the drainage structure.

Generally designs are made adequate to accommodate not only the largest flow ever recorded for that may be expected under the most adverse conditions for a given number of years.

Factors considered in calculating the expected flow through a culvert opening include the size, length and shape of the entrance and down stream end of the conduit, the maximum allowable height of water at the entrance, and the water level at the outlet.

There is a trend to use designs that permit drainage structure yard. Such procedures permit better control of the work. For example with recast concrete pipe section, it is often possible to avoid building small box culverts in the field. Circular culverts of large diameter are now also constructed in the same way.

Water drainage as an elemental part of Civil Engineering Construction plays an importance role which makes it very significant when it comes to the act of practicing maintenance culture.

To this end in every construction process, drainage should be given due consideration. In residential buildings, water drainage system is very importance so as to get rid of waste water and storm water from the building and thereby preventing the building from excessive dampness and by so doing providing good maintenance for the building.

Aside the fact that drainage system in residential building prevents excessive dampness, it also prevents excessive flooding.

Another area in construction where drainage system can highly be appreciated is road and embankment construction. In road construction, water drainage are primarily designed to prevent excessive flooding of the paved surface thereby preventing wearing away of the surface and also make it more accessible during and after storm.

In the light of all these significant roles played by water drainage system, necessity has made it mandatory for any existing structure or proposed structure to have a water drainage system.

Resolving a water drainage system involves a lot of activities especially where the water drainage is to control excessive flooding or where it is to be designed for water logged area. The designing water drainage system there is need to anticipate the position of future structure erections so as not to hinder the aesthetic nature of future construction process.

Another importance fact is that for good effective water drainage system to be developed, there is need to construct a filter along the drainage channels because of the retention capacity of the soil within the campus area. The soil consist mostly later tic clay which has the ability to retain water for a long period of time. As this will be detrimental to the life span of the water drainage channel to be constructed, it is that masonry lining for the water drainage channels be constructed also.

• Statement of the Problem
Water drainage channels perform the vital function of diverting or removing surface water from the highway right-of-way. They should provide the most efficient disposal system consistent with cost, an importance of the road, an economy of maintenance, and legal requirements (Zumrawi, 2014).

In our country, there is a good endeavor of expansion of roads, but many of them are not functioning well to the desired life time and quality. Out of the reasons, failure on water drainage structures comes first (Mehari et al., 2015).

In the study area, side drainage structures are not correctly functioning. The main causes are the insufficiency of existing roadside ditch for the duration of the rainy season to pass the flood and absence of side ditches in the place where it required. These problems cause damage to road pavement and side properties. Along with this road, the flow that comes from another ditch cross the pavement leads asphalt to distress, by washing the surfacing layer of the road at the entrance of Ibadan town and another part of this road.

The rain water runoff is mainly contributed from very steep and elevated points along this road. For example, the run off that come from Ogun state gravel roads cross and pond on the carriageway of this road.

The roadway between Ibadan to Ijebu ode town has variable topography which is subjected to flooding during rainy season. This is for the reason of inadequate water drainage along the road. Starting from Ibadan Agricultural and veterinary medicine collage to Ijebu ode town, there is no proper water drainage; this problem may stop the traffic flow during heavy rain season. Also, the study area road users and residents are suffering by the problem of runoff that damage both pavements and residents properties, because of inadequate water drainage.

Currently, the problem of water drainage at some part of Ibadan to Ijebu ode road affects pavement, residents and road users. To improve this problem, the effect of inadequate water drainage should be estimated, and mitigation measures should be planned for sustainable and proper functioning based on ERA drainage design manuals 2002 and 2013 for low volume roads.

The objectives of the study work shall cover all the vital aspect of the drainage problems system. The first stage of this project work shall include the reconnaissance survey of the area covered by the campus, nothing the land scope and modal points ways, the effects of flood and erosion more prevalent, the catchments area and tributaries of the storms water that constitute the major part of the erosion and flood because it is quite noticeable that during the raining seasons that most of the road leading to campus and within the campus becomes in-accessible for motorists and part of the building, lecture rooms are highly flooded.

The next is to found out which type of the drainage system exists and the orientation, direction of the drainage channel.

Another objective where the study is going to lover is the type of hydraulic drainage design, the study shall also highlight the serviceability and cost effectiveness of the method adopted that is to say whether the design is made of press-stressed concrete or in-site concrete.

On the reasonable part of it, this study shall highlight more on the solution to this water drainage problems

• Research Questions
The research questions that the study wanted to answer are as follows:

• Which sections of the road are prone to flooding that affect the traffic flows?

• What are the factors or parameters that cause water drainage problem along the study area?

• What are the effects of water overflowing on the pavement and adjacent property?

• What appropriate mitigation measures be recommended to address the problem?

• Scope of the study
This study covers the provision of adequate water drainage facilities on Ibadan to Ijebu ode road. Maintenance is keeping all the components to the acceptable state for an efficiently working water drainage system. The study therefore mainly dwells on the state of water drainage system within the study area on provision.

This research also gives attention to the effects water has on the road due to poor side drainage. It was looking at the various steps that should be taken so as to ensure sufficient water drainage system and how water causes road deterioration.

It was, however, not within the scope of this study to include qualitative problems of drainage hydraulics, computation of flow in conduits or pertinent hydraulic elevation and aspects of mathematical modeling or design aspects of water drainage on roads.

• Significance of the research study
Nigeria is developing into a middle-income economy with its development being shown by the level of road network under construction. Roads are being either constructed or being improved throughout the country. It is, therefore, important to have good water drainage systems in such roads if they are to be sustainable and economically viable as far as maintenance is concerned.

This research was aimed at coming up with findings on the effects of poor water drainage and maintenance systems in Ibadan to Ijebu ode road. It has also come up with the recommendation on the ways forward. It was supposed to find out reasons for inadequate provision of water drainage and the reasons for poor maintenance of the available side drains.

According to Kassa, (2013) The study, design, and construction of road drainage structures require skilled work force and intensive financial resources. If the drainage structures fail, high investment is required to maintain them to avoid traffic interruption. To minimize maintenance expenses proper protection and management of these road assets are important. Consequently, this study is beneficial to ERA Ibadan, Oromia road authority and others like zones in the Country for future water drainage structures construction to avoid problems by evaluating the performances of the existing drainage structures and proposing mitigation measures to avoid improper functioning.

The study will be beneficial for academicians and researchers who conduct similar researches on other water drainage structures. It may also support policy makers in their effort to address similar problems. Any organization working water drainage can use it as a further reference to construct water drainage.

• Limitations of the project study
Limitations of the project study were few numbers of literatures available on the concerned study issues in our countries, work load given to researcher from DDU during the thesis work and financial problem.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 66 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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