In this study the proximate fermentation of oat and wheat flour were investigated. The oat flour contained considerable amounts of protein (16.92%), total carbohydrates (64.65%) ash (1.80%), crude fiber (4.92%), moisture (5.61%) and fat (6.10%). The wheat flour also contained protein (13.56%), total carbohydrates (73.51%), ash (0.6%), crude fiber (0.32%), moisture (11.35%) and fat (0.98%). Based on these results, oat flour is nutritious and has a potential for use as composite flour in food formulations. Effects of oat flour supplementation (5%, 10%, and 15% of oat flour) on nutritional properties of the composite bread were investigated. The crude fiber, fat and protein all are increased as the addition of oat flour increased. The farinograph water absorption values of the composite flour (5%, 10%, and 15% of wheat flour) were 58.3%, 59.0% and 64.2% while the dough stability values were 8.5, 5.2 and 3.4 minutes; respectively. The dough development times were also 2.4, 3.0, and 4.3 minutes and that of the farinograph quality number were 99, 65 and 58 Brabender units; respectively. According to the results of wet gluten, falling number, and sedimentation values all decreased with the increase of oat flour supplementation (p<0.05) while color grade and oil absorption increased. The loaf volume of the composite flour bread were 340.6(100% wheat flour), 323.5 (5% oat flour), 298.4(10% oat flour), 250.3 (15% oat flour) and 210.9(100% oat flour). Loaf volume was significantly decreased with increase in level of incorporation of oat flour whereas loaf weight at 5%, 10% and 15% level of oat incorporation was significantly lower as compared to 100% oat supplementation (p<0.05). Results of this research suggested that supplementation of oat flour up to 10% results in bread with acceptable qualities. Breads were prepared from locally grown varieties. The major parameters (specific weight, flake thickness and moisture content) which mostly affect the quality of breads were measured and compared with the control bread. Specific weight, flake thickness and moisture content values were 0.53gm/L, 0.51mm and 9.5; respectively. These results are not significantly different to that of the control one. The sensory evaluation results also suggested that the flakes are acceptable. The economic analysis of the composite bread production plant revealed that it is profitable to produce the product.

Key words: Composite bread, Farinograph values, Flour supplementation, Bread, Wet gluten

The genus of oat is Avena L. (Poaceae) and belongs to the tribe Aveneae of the family Gramineae. The primary species cultivated is Avena sativa. However, Avena byzantina and Avena strigosa are also grown in some regions for animal feed and fodder (Colin et al., 2008).

Oats have played a significant role in farming systems from domestication to present due to the versatile uses of the grain and plant. Oats currently rank sixth in world production of cereals after maize, rice, wheat, barley, and sorghum. World oat production was similar to millet and exceeded rye, and triticale (Colin et al., 2008).

Oats are primarily grown in cool temperate climates with 67% of world production occurring in the northern hemisphere. The Russian Federation, Canada, United States of America, Finland, and Poland were ranked as the top five countries for world oat production. Oats are also grown in the southern hemisphere with Australia ranked first in production while Argentina, Chile, and Brazil are also significant producers (Colin et al., 2008).

Oats for human consumption are used to produce traditional, functional, and medicinal products. Oats are differentiated from other cereal grains by using the entire kernel after the hull is removed for many food products. Porridge or oatmeal, hot cereals, bread, biscuits, infant food, and muesli or granola bars are a few examples of food products produced from oats. Non dairy food uses have been developed resulting in oat milk, yoghurt, and ice cream. Oats have been shown to have health benefits for lowering blood cholesterol, normalizing blood glucose levels, and reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Although pharmacological properties are reported in the literature, no products have been commercialized (Anna et al., 2003).

• Statement of the problem
Developing countries are facing problems of malnutrition due to lack of food resources. High prices of food commodities and policy barriers are the factors aggravating the food crisis in developing countries (Weaver, 1994). Food security is defined as “condition where all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 1996).

Cereal grains like wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, etc. provide 68% of the total world food supplies. Wheat is mainly used as a dietary staple, averaging two-thirds of total consumption (Anjum et al., 2005). Owing to shortage of wheat, several developing countries have devised programs to assess the feasibility of alternate sources for substituting or blending with wheat flour (Abdel-Kader, 2000).

Most developing countries including Nigeria rely on importation to get wheat or wheat flour needed for making bread, rolls, biscuits and other pastry products. For this reason, most developing countries are interested in the possibility of replacing the wheat needed for making baked goods, wholly or partly with flour obtained from home grown products .Africa is becoming increasingly food insecure. In 2011 Africa imported some $7.7 billion worth of cereals and cereal products, equivalent to nearly $10 per person (FAO, 2011). Most of the imports are wheat and flour for bread making. Importation of cereals is having a devastating effect on the economies of many African countries like Nigeria. It uses valuable foreign exchange, which would be much better applied for economic development. It also inhibits local agricultural development (Stanley et al., 2004). To combat this problem, as long ago as the 1960s, the FAO launched a "Composite Flour Program". The objective was to seek new possibilities for the use of raw materials other than wheat in the production of bread, biscuits (cookies), pastas, and similar flour based foods (De Ruiter, 1978).

Knowledge of functional and fermentation properties of un-conventional and/or novel food ingredients is imperative to incorporate successfully in existing food formulations. Blending non wheat flours with wheat might result in technological difficulties and impairment of baking quality. For this purpose, determining potential use of composite flour blends in food formulations, informations regarding functional and fermentation properties of blends are essential (Akubor et al., 2003).

Wheat protein is deficient in some essential amino acids, especially lysine which is the first limiting amino acid in wheat. This deficiency results in lowering the protein nutritional quality of products made from wheat flour (Wrigley and Bietz, 1988). The deficiency of lysine leads to the poor utilization of protein and thus results in protein malnutrition. The cereal which attracts much interest in this context on account of its nutritional value is oats. Its grain is rich in protein and dietary fiber and its content of fatty acids is favourable (Liukkonen et al., 1992). Wieser et al. (1980) demonstrated that oat flour is much richer in protein than wheat, rye, barley, rice, maize and sorghum flours.

In recent years, there has been an increased demand for high quality oats destined for the milling and food manufacturing industries. Much of this demand is in response to consumer interest in oat products as a source of whole grain, high fiber, and high β glucan foods (Geiger et al., 1996). The majority of milled oats are ground into flour for use in ready-to-eat breakfast cereals but a significant portion are flaked for use in bakery products, granola bars, and hot oatmeal (Caldwell et al., 1989). The major disadvantage of oat is it takes a long time to cook, but processing it to bread will solve this problem

Studying the possibilities of increasing oat utilization as an important food is the basis of this research which tries to find alternative ways in which oat can be more accepted not only as a traditionally processed food but also as a value added product in Nigeria. Therefore, this study is initiated to study the possibility of incorporating oat flour in bread formulation and so as to harness its potential in nutritional terms.

• Objectives
• To Study the proximate composition, physico-chemical and technological properties of oat flour and its composite with wheat flour.

• To evaluate the fermentation properties of the oat - wheat flour dough using Brabender Farinograph.

• To study the proximate composition as well as organoleptic property of oat based bread.

• To study some quality parameters for bread.

• Suggest a process technology for the processing of bread

• To evaluate techno-economic feasibility of producing composite flour bread.

• Significance of the project
• It will maximize oat utilization by diversification of its products to bread and flake.

• Result in cost effective weaning product for low and middle income families that can be produced at industrial level.

• The major disadvantage of oat is it takes a long time to cook, but processing it to bread will solve this problem.

• Characterize the locally grown oat variety which can serve as a source for further study.

• Make awareness on the nutritional value of oat.

For more Food Science & Technology Projects Click here
Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 94 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post


A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts