Agricultural activities account for 14% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they are the primary cause of deforestation and land degradation, which accounts for an additional 17% of GHG emissions. Although a greater knowledge of the factors that influence the adoption of climate smart agricultural practices is necessary to guide policies aimed at supporting successful climate change adaptation measures, little information on the diverse methods used by smallholders exists. The goal of this study was to look at the factors that influence the adoption of climate-smart agriculture techniques in Kebbi, Nigeria. It explains how social variables like age, gender, and education, as well as economic and institutional factors like access to extension services and weather forecasting, impact the adoption of climate wise farming practices. Simple random selection was used to choose 3 Villages out of 11 based on the 30% criteria. Second, a method of systematic random sampling was used. A total of 228 people were questioned utilizing a standardized questionnaire. The information gathered was analyzed using a mix of descriptive and inferential statistics. Farm size (0.0293**, p 0.05) and noticing of unpredictable temperatures (-0.1643***, p 0.001) were found to have a statistically significant negative impact on the adoption of soil fertility management practices in Kebbi State, while income (0.0002**, p 0.05) had a statistically significant positive impact. Access to extension services (0.0792*** p 0.001) had a statistically significant beneficial impact on the adoption of better crop and animal breeds as a climate change and variability adaptation response. (-0.0020* p 0.05) Age. More integration amongst extension partners should be investigated, according to the report. Improved land security is important because it enhances the chance of farmers embracing Climate Smart Agriculture. Policies and strategies should focus a greater emphasis on bolstering the existing agricultural extension service and promoting proven technologies including soil fertility management, better crop and animal breeds, agroforestry, and water harvesting and management. Climate wise farming methods require increased capacity, including access to meteorological information tailored to farmers' requirements.

1.1 Background of the Study
Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing the planet in the twenty-first century. Climate change, according to the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), has caused food security issues in most nations. Various stakeholders believe that keeping temperature rise below the 2°C mark is now impossible, and that the world population will have to deal with the consequences (IPCC, 2014). Agricultural productivity is affected by rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns, with considerable decreases in crop and livestock production (Sharma & Ravindranath, 2019). Following this, agricultural production systems are projected to provide food for the world's population, which is expected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050 and more than 10 billion by the end of the century (World Bank, 2011). Branca and colleagues.

Africa's temperatures have risen by 0.5 degrees Celsius over the previous century, according to the IPCC (2014), and are expected to rise by 1.5 to 4 degrees Celsius by 2099. According to the World Bank (2011), this makes Africa the most vulnerable continent. The evidence of climate change in Nigeria is undeniable, according to the Nigeria National Climate Change Strategic Plan (GOK, 2010). The temperature has climbed across the country. Rainfall has grown more sporadic and unexpected, and when it does rain, it rains harder. In Nigeria, extreme and terrible weather has become the norm.

This has had an influence on the agriculture sector, which has been affected by climate change-related extreme weather events such as drought, flooding, high winds, and landslides, as well as seasonal weather changes.

As a result, climate smart agriculture is required in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African nations to resist the consequences of climate change (Kabubo-Mariara & Kabara, 2021). Climate smart agriculture is a revolutionary word that attempts to integrate climate change into agriculture, allowing agriculture to adapt to climate change and minimize greenhouse gas emissions (or mitigation). Climate smart agriculture, according to FAO (2010), is agriculture that I increases productivity in a sustainable manner, ii) reduces climate change vulnerability (enhance adaptation), iii) reduces emissions that cause climate change (mitigation), iv) protects the environment from degradation, and v) improves food security and improved livelihood of a given society.

CSA techniques to deal with climate change, according to FAO (2010), include agroforestry and carbon trading, as well as raising knowledge about rainwater collecting and water management practices. Crop diversification, the adoption of drought/pest resistant crop varieties and seeds, the shift to bio-fuels for domestic and industrial use, sustainable land use, and encouraging mitigation through non-forestry activities like fuel switching and energy efficiency at the community level, as well as the use of bio-fuels, have all been heavily promoted. Finally, environmental and climate change education, as well as agribusiness and value addition development, are all important (Lukano, 2013). El- Fattal (2012) adds to the list by emphasizing the adoption of better agricultural technology such as enhanced water management techniques, improved animal breeds, and crop types that are more drought resistant.

Integration of climate-smart agricultural methods into a single farming system will give various benefits, including increased revenue and improved lifestyles. However, certain methods cannot be integrated because they have an influence on other aspects of the farming system at the same time. Maintenance expenses or significant investment, for example, may surpass impoverished farmers' asset capabilities; the timing and intensity of a practice may result in labor restrictions; and competition for crop leftovers may limit biogas output and animal feed. Identifying these limits in advance of adoption is necessary for developing commercially appealing and ecologically sustainable management practices. (Neufeldt et al, 2011).

While farmers seek to adapt via innovation, research by Rao et al., (2011) and Pettengell, (2010) found that they have little capacity to respond successfully to these quick and overwhelming changes outside of their regular experience. Farmers' efforts to fight climate change in Nigeria have so far been minimal (Mutinda et al., 2010). In Nigeria, low adoption has been linked to a variety of reasons in different locations and agro-ecological zones (Ogada et al., 2014). Farmers' adoption of biodiversity conservation was hampered by the lack of technology in local agro stores, according to a survey conducted by Mutsotso et al. (2011) in Embu and Taita, Nigeria. Mugwe et al. (2009) conducted another research that looked at small-scale farmers' use of soil fertility management strategies. Ogada et al. (2014) found that low adoption of fertilizers and improved maize varieties in the Kiambu, Embu, and Coastal lowlands was due to climatic conditions, high input and labor costs, limited access to extension services, unavailability of inputs in agro shops, gender, and low financial endowments. According to surveys (Jones et al., 2010), better educated and knowledgeable farmers are always at the forefront of new technology uptake. Despite the importance of knowledge in decision-making and innovation adoption, research (Dzanku et al., 2011) reveal that small-scale farmers are frequently cut off from information. Even while knowledge is considered a prerequisite for adoption, it is not sufficient.

Climate change is clearly visible in Kebbi State, with considerable implications on crop and livestock output (GOK, 2010). It has contributed to Kebbi State's high poverty rate. Loss in quality and quantity of natural biodiversity, as well as soil erosion, are important repercussions of climate change, according to the Kebbi State Government. Rainfall patterns have changed, affecting land preparation and agricultural production, resulting in decreased yields (Lukano, 2013). Similarly, temperature fluctuations impair soil moisture retention, causing crop withering and decreased yields, adding to food poverty. The early termination of the protracted rains has resulted in below-average maize and other crop output in the state, according to the State Government. As a result, climate change adaptation is critical. To that end, agricultural production has attracted a number of institutions and/or organizations, all with the goal of improving agricultural efficiency and conditions through a variety of interventions such as farmer capacity building, improved inputs, onfarm demonstration plots of new agricultural technologies, remedial or mitigation measures for degraded soils advocacy, and so on. One Acre Fund, Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Agriculture for Rural Development (CA SARD), Syngenta, and Kick Start are just a few examples.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The agriculture industry in Nigeria is experiencing instability due to climate changes. According to the Nigeria Meteorological Department (NMD), rising temperatures and rainfall may cause broad regions that were previously good for agriculture to become unsuitable. This is due to growing rates of emerging crop diseases such as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease and frequent floods (MLND). Small-scale farmers frequently lack understanding of existing and emerging solutions for adapting their agricultural systems to climate change. They also have limited resources and risk-taking capabilities when it comes to technology and financial services (FAO, IFAD, & UNICEF, 2020). This is due to the fact that the majority of the planned CSA methods have aided farmers in coping with the consequences of climate change rather than adapting to them. Other farmers have not embraced similar approaches owing to site-specific social, economic, and institutional considerations.

Several research in the field of climate smart agriculture, such as Amin, Mubeen, Hammad, and Jatoi (2021), focused on climate smart agriculture for long-term food security. McCarthy, Lipper, and Branca (2011) focused their research on climate smart agriculture on the impact of institutions in improving CSAs. Crouch, Lapidus, Beach, Birur, Moussavi, and Turner (2017) emphasized on the function of economic modeling as a policy to boost CSA in their study on establishing Climate-Smart Agriculture Policies. A modest in-depth research on the adoption of climate smart agriculture among smallholder farmers is now underway. This study intended to determine the factors influencing the adoption of CSA practices among smallholder farmers in Kebbi State.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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