Islamic Studies is taught at Secondary Schools (JSS) to inculcate discipline in students. However, evidence have shown that most of the students regardless of religion being practiced lack discipline and morals. The moral decadence among these secondary school students has become a major concern attributed to deficiencies in moral instructions embedded in the curriculum. Previous studies have focused largely on Al-Majiri, Ulama roles, problems and challenges facing the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies with little emphasis on curriculum implementation. The study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the implementation of the current Islamic Studies curriculum with respect to provision of instructional materials, qualified and experienced teachers and teaching effectiveness (content mastery, orderly presentation and communication skills) as imparted on discipline and learning outcomes (attitude and achievement). The learning outcomes of students based on the curriculum content of Tawhid, Fiqh, Sīrah and Taḥdhib were also assessed.

The study adopted an ex-post facto design using the Context, Input, Process and Product evaluation model. Three states were randomly selected from the Gombe state, while purposive sampling technique was employed to select 65 public schools that offer the subject (Oyo - 27, Osun - 19 and Ogun - 19). All JSS I-III Islamic Studies students (2353) and their teachers (65) were enumerated. Instruments used were Islamic Studies Curriculum Performance (r=0.98), Classroom Teachers’ Evaluation (Scott π=0.96), Qur’an Recitation Rating (Scott π=0.63) and Instructional Materials Assessment (r=0.90) scales, and Students’ Attitude Towards Islamic Studies (r=0.57) and Islamic Studies Curriculum Achievement (r=0.98) tests. Data were subjected to percentages and Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance.

Ninety-five percent and fifty-four percent of the schools had qualified Islamic Studies teachers and sufficient instructional materials, respectively, even though audio-visual aids were not available. Ninety percent of the teachers perceived the curriculum objectives as achievable, 29.0% of the teachers possessed content mastery, orderly presentation and communication skills. Eighty-five percent of the students recited Qur’anic text fluently; 29.0% defined and categorised actions that deal with Oneness of Allah (Tawhid) and Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), while 32.0% were knowledgeable in stating lessons derivable from history of the Prophet (Sīrah) and Islamic moral lesson (Taḥdhib). Teaching qualification and experience, instructional materials and assessment of learning jointly predicted students’ achievement (F(6,58)=2.98; Adj, R2=0.17), accounting for 17.0% of its variance; with only assessment (β=- 0.43) contributing relatively to achievement. Teaching qualification and experience, instructional materials and assessment jointly predicted students’ attitude (F(16,58)=3.21; Adj R2=0.16), accounting for 16.0% of its variance.. Availability of instructional materials (β=0.41) and assessment (β=-0.46) had significant relative contributions to students’ attitude toward Islamic Studies.

Sufficient Instructional materials, good assessment and availability of qualified teachers enhanced the effective implementation of Islamic Studies curriculum with respect to impartation of discipline and learning outcomes among secondary schools students in Gombe state Nigeria.

• Background to the Problem
Islamic studies is one of the key subjects being taught at the Secondary Schools in Nigeria to produce enlightened, well-behaved and God-fearing learners. It plays an important role in the spiritual, academic and moral development of learners at the low-grade subordinate institution category. The history of Islamic education is the same as the history of the religion of Islam itself. This is because Islam goes to any place or community along with its own form of education (Balogun 1982; Ajidagba, 1991). Islam, which precedes Christianity in Nigeria, is said to have come to the country in the 11th century. It is on record that when Kanem Jilmi of the old Borno accepted Islam, he established the first Quranic School in his palace (Amr- Abdalla, 2006). It is not a matter of coincidence or accident that Islam and Islamic education go together. The fact is that, without the latter the former cannot be said to have been firmly entrenched and understood.

The evolution of Islamic education can be traced to the first Qur’anic revelation, which instructs the Prophet to recite in the name of his Lord who creates (Qur’ān 96;1-10). Allah also directed Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in the Qur’ān to pray for increase in knowledge (Rahim 2000). The antiquity of Islamic teaching in the South Gombe state is as aged as the antiquity of Islam in the territory. As it was impracticable to observe some spiritual duties deprived of reciting some portions of the Qur’ān and certain recommended litanics (adhkār) in Arabic, it became incumbent for the scholars propagating the faith to impart into new members. This effort ended in the organisation of Qur’anic institutions in the community. Mosques were mostiy used for this programme. In some instance, houses of the scholars as well as sapling shades were used as institutions. The site of the institutions explained why teaching amenities that could promote knowledge were completely insufficient. Bathmat and butt or intimidate hide were the shared fittings in such institutions. The only recognised manuscript at that time, al-Qā’idat al-Baghdadiyyah -an Arabic manuscript for beginners which cover Arabic alphabet in different arrangement and the last part juz'u (1/30) of the Qur’ān. Subsequent upon the conclusion of this script, that student could progress to study the complete Qur’ān (Adebayo, 2005).

Usually, rote-knowledge was the medium of instruction, a system that was necessary in studying any langauge. The institution datebook was break free as the institution was having lessons all over the year excluding Thursdays, Fridays, Muslim festival days and at times in Ramadan. There were no disruption in the school programme, so there was continuous teaching-learning session excluding when the teacher was in mourning, ill or on a journey.

Authors and researchers over the years have defined curriculum in various ways, for instance, McLean (2002) viewed curriculum as ‘systematically organised course of teaching and learning’. It includes both the formal and the informal curriculum. The formal curriculum consists of the organised learning experiences conducted in classrooms, shops, laboratories, gymnasia and playing fields and that part of the curriculum commonly known as the course of study. Bamikole (2003) agreed with this definition and asserted that the remainder of the child’s school experiences constitutes the informal curriculum. Guidance and extra – class activities are its major aspects. Curriculum is the totality of learning experiences to which students are exposed to under the guidance of the school.

The term curriculum also refers to a programme for a given subject matter or a given grade, a programme for a given subject matter, for the entire study cycle or the whole programme of different subjects for the entire cycle or even the whole range of cycles. It is oftentime used in a wider sense to cover various academic programme through which the content is conveyed as well as materials used and methods employed (Eyetsemitan, 2002). Ajayi (2006) stated that the organization of materials and sequence of learning activities too is part of the curriculum. They also claimed that the organizational structure of a programme in terms of the relative importance of clearly defined behavioural objectives either implicitly or explicitly also forms the curriculum. Teaching strategies like expository presentation materials, discovery or guided discovery learning, programmed instruction, mastery learning and the like, management of classwork, and the role of the teacher all determine the curriculum of a particular subject matter.

In this study, the concept of curriculum is viewed from the perspectives of McLean (2002) which essentially provide that curriculum covers various educational activities. In this case, Islamic education, which covers the content, instructional materials and method employed as well as its organization that are being evaluated.

The social relevance of the curriculum as observed by Abe and Adu (2013) and Hindman and Wasik (2008) is also relevant to the issue of Islamic education with the view that Islamic education can lead to social change especially in resolving the issues of thuggery, academic drop out and social upheaval which are rampant in the society.

Emeke (2012) defined assessment as ‘the organized and impartial appraisal of an ongoing or finished scheme, or course of action, including its plan, execution and outcomes. The goal is to find out the significance, attainment of goals, development efficacy, usefulness, meaningfulness and feasibility.’ The objective is to estimate whether learning experiences provided in the school curricular are meeting the set goals and objectives in bringing about socially desirable development among the societies. Curriculum evaluation is carried out to ascertain the achievement of learning goals and academic standards

Adeogun (2003) reported that the quality of the educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without adequate manpower may not be able to achieve the set educational goal and objectives. Okebukola (2006) argued that the competence of teaching staff determines students’ constant poor academic performance or otherwise in examinations. Oredein and Oloyede (2007) collaborated this assertion when they observed a positive significance between the performance of students tutored by professionally trained and non-professionally trained teachers in biology. Researches have been carried out on teachers’ factors such as age, gender, experience, qualifications, attitude and students’ learning outcome. For instance, Abe and Adu (2013) reported a positive effect that teachers’ factors such as area of specialization, gender, educational attainment and experience have on academic performance of learners. Odeniyi (2011) opined that highly qualified teachers will not only improve achievement but also generate positive attitude of students to learning. Islamic studies being a subject that involves a lot of practical exercises would improve learning outcomes and attitude of students (Adebayo, 2005).

The relevance of experienced tutors in schools has been highlighted by many researchers (Akinleye, 2001 and Ogundare, 2001). Researchers have also commented on teaching experience and students’ academic performance in schools (Akomolafe, 2004). Akomolafe’s argument centred on the fact that experience aids learning outcomes while pupils achieve maximally at the hands of teachers who have taught them continuously over a period of years. He then concluded that the more experienced teachers in a school system, the higher would be the improvement in productivity. Salami (2010) recommends the need to involve retired teachers because of their long years of teaching experience to teach in Nigerian schools. Availability of experienced teachers will improve academic performance and attitude of students to Islamic studies (Ndagi, 2011). Research findings have revealed that high quality teachers are education’s best resources and assets (Ayodele 2004). Research findings confirmed that teachers’ experience affects students’ learning outcomes. Ilugbusi, Falola and Daramola (2007) reported that a teacher’s experience in a school subject determines students’ learning outcomes in external examinations. They further noted that inexperienced teachers can be frustrated by unusual classroom circumstances but the experienced teachers due to years of training have developed the necessary skills to tackle agents of classroom bewilderment.

A lot of research works have been carried out on effect of material variables on attitude and learning outcomes. Isola (2010) carried out his study on the effects of material variables on students’ learning outcomes in Kwara State. Isola (2010) investigated the connection between material variables and performance of students in ten subjects. Students’ performance in West Africa Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) for the past five years were related to the resources available for teaching each of the subjects. He reported that material variables impact positively on students learning outcomes and attitude to school subjects. Instructional materials when they are available, adequately provided and well utilised will not only assist students to achieve maximally it will also improve their attitude towards Islamic studies lessons since the subject involves a lot of practical exercises (Hauwa, 2012).

The pattern of assessment adopted by a subject teacher also determines achievement and attitude of students to the subject (Boston, 2002). When a teacher gives take-home assignment, project or asks the students to recite Quranic surahs, study Ḥadīth and historical facts, this will prompt the students to put in more efforts to their studies, thus generating positive attitude and academic excellence (Aderinoye, 2002). Acceptable evaluation of learners performance historically has focused on the reproduction of factual and procedural knowledge from students (Moss, Girard and Haniford 2006). The items on such evaluation instrument typically measure recall of discrete facts, retrieval of given information, and application of routine computational formulas or procedures. The evaluation outcome reveals a partial picture of learners performance at a given moment. According to Rochex (2006) performance evaluation shows details of the student’s performance at a given time. According to Moss et al (2006), performance evaluation impacts positively on the educational values of teaching and learning activities in schools in South Korea. They submitted that performance evaluation impacts positively on learners intellectual abilities in areas such as achievement, learning attitude, creativity and inquiring ability.

The Nigerian constitution made adequate provision for religious knowledge as written in the National Policy on Education, the document that contained policy statement as regards educational issues in Nigeria. Section 1 sub-section 9 (k) states that “provision shall be made for religious instruction; no child should be forced to accept any religious instruction which is contrary to the wishes of his or her parents [FGN 2004]

Consequent upon this, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) formulated the Islamic studies curriculum for Secondary Schools 1 – 3. Features of the curriculum include:

• The Qur’ān

• The Ḥadīth

• Tawhid

• Fiqh

• Sīrah

• Taḥdhib

The features of the Secondary School Islamic Studies Curriculum mentioned above discuss the following topics;

• Qur’anic explanationtion (Exegesis): It involves review of the revelation of the Qur’ān, how it was collected, compiled and explanation according to early scholars such as Ibn Kathīr, At- Tabari, and Ibn Taymiyya. In some schools, the explanation given by contemporary scholars such as Sayed Qutb and Mawdudi may also be included.

• Prophet’s manners of doing things (Ḥadīth): It scrutinizes the processes adopted to ensure the reliability of stories and statement credited to Prophet Muhammad, and investigation of the collection compiled by earlier scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim.

• Islamic study of relevant laws (Fiqh): It covers the process adopted by various scholars, especially those representing the major four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam (Shāf’i, Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali) their recommendations on a variety matters, usually catalogued under sections such as prayer, marriage, divorce, charity and jihad.

• Belief System in Islam (‘aqȃ’id): It covers the fundamental Islamic beliefs such as Oneness of God, existence of angels and Satan, the Last day, heaven, and hell.

• Arabic Language: Arabic, being the language of the Qur’ān, educational institutions that focus on Islamic knowledge provide training in the mastery of the language.

• Islamic Actions that are regularly performed: Its deals with how Muslims should perform their regular functions such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage to Makkah.

• Islamic History: They deal with Islamic history from the time of Prophet Muhammad till date.

• Islamic Ways of doing things and worth: It addresses education especially for children on proper Islamic functions as prescribed and being done in the early days of Islam, a period described by Islamic scholars as a golden age of Islam.

Islamic studies as a key subject being taught in schools is recommended to achieve desirable behavioural pattern among the students’. The subject aims at achieving the following:

• Indentification of Allah as the maker and provider of the world and the origin of worthy things.

• Expression of thanks to Allah and obedience to His prescribed rules both in adoring of Him and in our relationship with our fellow-man.

• Development of knowledge and thinking abilities in line with with the Qu’ranic provision “will you not use your knowledge?” and “will you not reason?” Qur’anic 2:23-24 and Qur’anic 56:85.

• Supporting the search for useful skills in line with the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. (P.BUH) “Looking for skills is a task for every Muslim, male or female” and the usage of such skills for the advantage of mankind in the areas of science, technology, medicine, etc.

• Achieving all-round growth of the individual and the society by providing all their needs.

• Provision for all to live in peace and oneness by avoiding all forms of anti-social behavior.

• Developing in one the awareness that Allah watches all that we do whereevever we may be, good or bad. (Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2007).

The basic objectives of the Islamic studies curriculum for Secondary Schools. It is assumed that after the students’ might have been exposed to various topical courses in Islamic Studies, they should be able to display competency in the following areas;

• That the students should read, memorize the holy book and Ḥadīth, then identify the main theme being discussed.

• That learners define, analyze and recognize actions within the context of oneness of Allah (Tawhid) and Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh).

• That students should mention, highlight and state lessons derivable from the biography of the Prophet and moral teachings contained in the Holy Qur’ān and Ḥadīth.

• To prepare students for senior secondary education in Islamic studies (NERDC, 2007).

• Statement of the Problem
Islamic studies is taught at Secondary schools in Nigeria to inculcate discipline and morals in students. However, evidence has shown that most of the students regardless of religion being practiced lack discipline and morals. The moral decadence among these secondary school students has become a major concern attributed to deficiencies in moral instructions embedded in the curriculum. Most of these students play truancy, absenteeism, hooliganism and all sorts of maladaptive behaviours that inhibit academic achievement and positive attitude to learning. Previous studies have focused largely on Al-Majiri, Ulama roles in educational development, problems and challenges facing the teaching and learning of Islamic studies with little emphasis on curriculum implementation. The study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the implementation of the current Secondary Schools Islamic studies curriculum with respect to provision of instructional materials, qualified and experienced teachers, assessment and teaching effectiveness as imparted on discipline and learning outcomes (attitude and achievement).

• Evaluation Objectives
The broad objective is to evaluate effectiveness of Secondary School curriculum for Islamic Knowledge in Gombe state Nigeria.

Specific objectives for this study are to:

• Evaluate teachers of Islamic studies perspective towards achieving the objectives.

• Evaluation of classroom teaching of Islamic studies lesson.

• Evaluation of learners’ attitude to Islamic studies lesson.

• Assessment of facilities for studying Islamic knowledge.

• Evaluation of Islamic studies teachers’ profile, in terms of qualification and teaching experience.

• Evaluation of achievement of students in Islamic studies test.

• Evaluation of students’ recitation of Qur’ānic text.

• Research Questions
This provides response to the inquiry on the study:

• What is the profile of Islamic Studies teachers in the Secondary schools?

• How do Islamic studies teachers perceive the aims of Islamic studies as stated

in the curriculum?

• (i) How effective is the classroom teaching of Secondary School Islamic studies? (ii) What are the available facilities for teaching Islamic Studies?

• (i) How fluent are the students in reciting portions of Qur’ān?

• What extent are learners’ been able to define, explain and categorize actions that deal with oneness of Allah (Tawhid) and Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh]?

• How knowledgeable are the students in stating the lessons derivable from the teachings of the biography of Prophet Muhammad (Sīrah) and Islamic moral teachings (Taḥdhib)?

• (i) To what extent do the six independent variables, namely: teachers’ characteristics (qualification and experience), material variables (availability, adequacy and utilization) and assessment when taken together determine students’ achievement in Islamic studies in the junior schools level?

• What are the relative contributions of the six independent variables in determining students’ learning outcomes in Islamic studies in Secondary schools?

• (i) To what extent do the six independent variables namely: teachers’ characteristics (qualification and experience), instructional materials (availability, adequacy and utilization) and assessment when taken together determine learners’ attitude towards Islamic studies among Secondary school students?

• What are the relative contributions of the six independent variables in determining learners’ attitude towards Islamic studies in Secondary schools?

• Scope of Study
There are six geo-political zones in Nigeria, of which Gombe state is one. This research covers three out of the six states in the zone, eleven (11) local government areas and sixty-five (65) public Secondary schools. Focus of the research is Islamic studies curriculum implementation in Secondary Schools (J.S.S) I -3.

• Significance of the Study
The research evaluated implementation of Islamic studies curriculum for Secondary schools with a view to knowing the extent of implementation. The research revealed learners attitudes to Islamic studies as a subject. This study also reveals the sufficiency or otherwise of resources needed for meaningful teaching- learning process. The study evaluated the impact of qualified and experienced teachers and assessment of learning activities on students’ attitude and academic achievement with a view to improving achievement in Junior school Islamic Religious Studies.. The expected gain to be derived from the study are listed below.

• Results from this study would shed light on ways of improving student’s achievement and attitude towards Islamic studies.

• The result would be useful to relevant stakeholders such as; the three tiers of government, curriculum planners, teachers, Ministry of Education, parents, public examining bodies and students in planning for improved instructions.

• The result will expand literature base in Islamic studies and educational evaluation particularly students’ learning outcomes in Islamic Studies at the Secondary Schools.

For more Islamic Studies Projects Click here
Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 100 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post


A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts