This project investigated the sociolinguistic analysis of language use in technology using twitter in the Nigerian context. Driven by inadequacy of literature with regards to Sociolinguistic of English in Nigerian technology: Sociolinguistic of English that are used in Nigeria and also internationally. The study looked into the word forming processes and gave examples of processes that technology neologisms undergo. The study guided by the objectives, aimed at determining how technology neologisms deviate from the use of Standard English using linguistic levels of analysis giving various examples. The study focused on the factors that lead to the production and usage of the technology neologisms. Finally, the study focused on the effectiveness of technology neologisms in communication. Lexical pragmatics was used as the theoretical framework for this study due to its ability to explain how a hearer is able to understand the encoded concept of a word from the concept communicated; this was explained under the processes: lexical narrowing, lexical broadening and categorical extension. The study after the investigations found that: technology neologisms deviate from the standard use of Standard English at different levels explained through linguistic description, the deviation was found to be a way to easen communication amongst the online users. Factors such as age, gender, quickness in communication, meaning impact and avoidance of grammar and spelling conventions were identified as having contributed to the production of technology neologisms. Finally speed of communication, brevity time-sensitivity, ease of interpretation and exposure were amongst the elements used to affirm that technology neologisms are effective in communication.

This study is based on the dynamic technological advancements in internet based communications and its effects on English language vocabulary. Crystal (2005) stated that in the 21st century use of technology applications have greatly shaped the way we communicate. Language is a dynamic repository of words, when it comes to technology, it‘s not just the way things are done that is changing but also the words being used and the lingo that is morphing at an accelerating speed. Words that never existed a decade ago now touch people like never before, due to the interactions online that require people to coin or invent words to refer to things that are new or have changed.

Kiesler (1997), stated that three quarters of American adults have been online with even more than (93%) reporting they do so, and almost all internet users say one of their primary purposes for going online is for communication. The internet is part of everyday life and people rely and use it for a variety of reasons that suit them.

This study focuses on technology applications to see how neologisms formed in social networking online have deviated from Standard English. The social networking sites have many of users who connect via computers or smart phones. People are able to communicate, share information, buy and sell product while miles away from one another because technological advancements have made it possible. Through these interactions online, languages being used have been greatly affected and particularly, this has greatly led to English vocabulary expansion.

This study seeks to investigate how English language evolves in technology based on the use of this language and the neologisms formed in social networking online. The researcher will be able to identify the factors that influence the use of neologisms online.

Growth in SNSs has transformed the way in which people create and share or exchange information and ideas which has been accelerated through virtual networking sites. The internet offers reduced cost of creating, organizing and participating in communication and also decreases the need for people to be physically together to act together. Just as technology has evolved and grown over the decades, so has language used in the SNSs platform.

Lenhart (2009) argues that the predominant SNS users are young adults three-quarter of adults internet users under age of 25 have a profile on a social networking site, and that these sites are attracting more adults users. In 2005, only 8% of adult internet users had online profiles. By 2009 the number quadrupled to 35%. Social networking site users are also regular visitors with more than one-third checking their profile page daily and almost another 25% visits every few days.

According to Ewing (2008), social media used ―pull technology‖ that connects people and actively engages them in the creation and management of online content allowing individuals to freely contribute to information publication and sharing, facilitated by the introduction of user- friendly sites, tools, platforms and applications such as Facebook, YouTube, twitter, blogs, MySpace, instagram,

Marchand (1969) states that neologism is a newly coined word that maybe in the process of entering common use but has not yet been accepted into the main stream. Some neologisms, especially those coined as a result of new inventions tend to be integrated into the language very quickly.

• Technology
Technology includes hardware inventions as well as software by human being to make life easier and more efficient. Technological inventions such as smartphones and computers are invented to make communication easy and help people access many other software applications on these devices that can be accessed via internet. Dominic (2011) states that, with advancements in technology print media started looking for new ways to prosper in the digital age. This siphoned off potential readers of print edition especially young readers. Young people, therefore, spend more time in internet based sites and various social networking sites.

The reason behind the prominence in internet based communication avenues is that the internet brings down the cost of mass communication to the level which anybody can afford and easily access. In today‘s world technology has out done the print media, one can read news online cheaper than one buy a newspaper, this can be conveniently accessed at the comfort of one‘s phone.

Technology, as mentioned above is not just in terms of mechanical inventions but also inclusive of software programs. These software programs, however, have specifications that differ from one another, this determines how people behave, use or adhere to the specifications of these programs. E.g. on instagram a user is able to upload a video which is only 15 seconds long but on you tube the size of a video is limitless. Kelly (2010) observes that technology as a whole is not, just a jumble of wires and metal, but a living, evolving organism that has its own unconscious needs and tendencies.

• Mobile Technology
When technology is used in combination with mobile devices it is called mobile technology, due to the fact that mobile technology runs on mobile devices .It differentiates from traditional technology as it incorporates new factors such as current location of the user( location – sensitively) or the time delay between sending and receiving message (time-sensitivity).

• The internet
Internet is a gateway to connect and access the digital world, where global information such as research, pictures, and videos among others can be accessed, shared, uploaded, downloaded and stored. The internet is an integral part of our everyday life, it is a constantly evolving tool that not only contains a variety of information but also provides new ways of accessing, interacting and connecting with people and content.

Technology and internet has profoundly changed the human experience. People use the web to find information, buy and sell products, watch television shows,seek mates, search for entertainment, converse and catch up with friends among other uses, (Gildezuniga, pulg & Rojas, 2009). It is through the internet that the technology applications are supported and accessed via computers and smart phones.

As the internet evolves, two developments are becoming clear: that web becomes more important for interpersonal and social functions, as evidenced by the tremendous rise of technology machine-assisted-interpersonal communication. However, if we become too dependent on internet, natural disasters, and human-made calamities e.g. cyber-attacks may disable the system and make it difficult to access and secure online profiles.( Dominic, 2011).

Human beings have become heavily reliant on technology and what is has to offer, technology has made it easy for people to communicate, and has greatly affected the language through social networking sites. The language of technology differs from standard English due to people‘s habits to; shorten, clip, abbreviate or combine words, give different meaning to existing words, coin words to represent things that are new or coin new words to ease their communication. Therefore, there is the need to look into the aspect of English language in relation to technology and the neologisms created for communication purposes.

When looking into technology neologisms, the term neologism is described as a new word used to represent something new or a word coined to represent a thing due to inadequacy of existing

words to represent it sufficiently and effectively. Bussman (1996: 324) while describing neologisms points out that neologisms are newly formed linguistic expressions that are recognized by at least part if not all of a language community as the way to denote a new object or state of affairs. These new objects or state of affairs are found in areas of technology, industry, politics, culture or science.

A study has been done on description, analysis and interpretation of dholuo Neologism, (Aduda ,2013). This study only focuses on the neologisms of a natural language and how hearers interpret the meaning . A different Study has focuses on the functions and importance of technology: how technology transforms the way people live and do business online. Scholarly material has been found on how technology improves products and service through branding hence better service delivery, (Burson-Mersteller ,2010).

However, there is inadequate literature with regard to Sociolinguistic of English in Nigerian technology: Sociolinguistic of English that are used in Nigeria and also internationally. The research looks how technology neologisms are used in Nigeria with special interest paid to twitter. A linguistic description approach analyzed deviation of technology neologisms from the usage of Standard English. This study investigates factors that contribute to production and usage of neologism in SNSs, and finally determines the effectiveness of neologisms in communication.

• Does sociolinguistic use of English in Technology deviate from standard usage of English?

• What factors influence the production and usage of sociolinguistic use of English in Technology?

• To what extent are technology neologisms effective in Nigerian context of communication?

The overall objective of this study is to study the use of English language in technology: investigating the use of technology neologisms as opposed to Standard English in communication on social networking platforms.

The specified objectives are:
• To determine how SNS neologisms deviates from the use Standard English through linguistic levels of analysis.

• To examine factors that influence the production and usage of neologisms is SNSs.

• To evaluate the effectiveness of sociolinguistic use of English in Technology in communication.

This research is based on the use of English language in technology and the neologisms that are formed in technology. This study is important as use of technology is inevitable part of everyday life and the language used in technology is worth area of investigation to find out how it differs from the standard usage. This study will help to explain how words formed through technology are incorporated in Standard English as well as benefit the language researchers on the factors that influence the production and the continuous use of the technology neologisms. This study is important as it explains on the why the technology neologisms are preferred in communication amongst online users over the Standard English words.

Literature on how technology has been integrated in the communication systems in our society have been studied; issue of language use in technology platforms is a significant area of study. This study is in the quest to understand how English language evolves through SNSs in terms of Neologism created in technology. This study will provide the process through which Neologisms are formed. The factors that influence usage of Neologism, which in return leads to English language vocabulary expansion.

Neologisms play a significant role in language change. This is in view of the fact that as new words are created in the language, there is a change in the vocabulary as new words are introduced and old words may acquire new senses. Neologisms can also lead to language modernization in the sense that it makes it possible for speakers to express the new technological and scientific developments in the society. With the invention of computers, tablets, ipads and smart phone which provide a wide range of applications that didn‘t previously exist, the need to come up with new words to represent the new things.

This study will focus on English language in technology within the framework of lexical pragmatics. The study will use the linguistic levels of analysis to investigate how use of technology neologisms deviates from the standard use of English, the study will also examine factors that lead to the production and usage of sociolinguistic use of English in Technology and finally determine how effective the sociolinguistic use of English in Technology are in communication. Due to presence of a very large platform of social networking sites, this study will be limited to neologisms in a specific media application, twitter: this is because twitter is more diverse and text oriented and has a lot of real- time reports, up to date hence being a suitable social networking site for language research. Twitter is relevant in this study as it captures real-time Sociolinguistic of English. The study will however make reference where necessary to other interrelated social networking; Facebook and instragram. The study will focus on English neologism used in Nigeria; but not limited to the neologism that are only produced and used in Nigeria.

For the purpose of the study, online users of this media application will form the target population since they are best conversant with applications. The language under study is English, since the language is wide and widely used. A study corpus of about thirty words will be compiled of Sociolinguistic of English and their meanings collected from twitter. The SNS mentioned will provide 30 words each containing each 6 nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and interjections.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 76 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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