This study evaluated the effects of climate change and coastal flooding in Calabar South and Calabar Municipal. The questionnaire survey method was adopted in which questionnaire was employed in collecting the data from the respondents which was later collated and analyzed. The study concluded therefore that the effects of the flooding in the six communities in Calabar South and Calabar Municipal are the same, and some of the major effects of flooding in the communities in Calabar South and Calabar Municipal include: road congestion, accident, damage of buildings, destruction of properties, health problems, reduction of aesthetic beauty of the environment, increase in poverty level and death. The study thus recommends that the masses be conscientized about these harmful effects of flooding in the area and their role in fighting flooding through a collaboration with the government and non-governmental organizations or an integrated approach. The awareness of the masses on the dangers facing them will cause them to take up their responsibilities and join forces with the government and non-gorvernmental bodies to contain the menace.

1.1 Background of the Study
In the past few year, the whether climate is changing and been characterised by the temperature, wind, precipitation, clouds and other weather elements. This phenomenon has caused the migration of human and environmental vulnerability in the world leading to hunger, poverty and malnutrition. (Todd et al. 2010 and IPCC (2007). According to Zewdie (2012), the Sub Saharan Africa regions is most likely to be affected with climate change. Moreover, it is forecasted that coastal communities will be more affected by the earth climate change as a result of increased participation would increase the vulnerability of coastal area to natural disasters (IPCC 2001, Wu SY, Yarnal and Fisher 2002). In the recent times, the Niger delta region of Nigeria has consistently experienced recurrent flooding as a result of increased participation and runoff from rivers. (7, 8). These phenomenon has significantly affected the ecosystem, thus putting the ecosystem under posed a great concern and danger on the ecosystem risk from earth climate change and other element.

The introduction of the delta to the influences of climate variability is now a source worry within the Niger delta region (IPCC 2007). The Niger Delta has an estimated population of over 30 million people. About 70% of this population and infrastructure are located in the low lying coastal regions. The economic activities and development of the Niger Delta region. Is no doubt threaten by climate change

A warming world will no doubt change the earth’s climate system and lead to severe environmental consequences (, 2014). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defined climate change as changes observed in weather conditions from statistical observations over extended periods, lasting for decades to centuries. Research has shown that from 1983 to 2012 with a baseline of 1850, temperatures in the earth’s climate system have increased (IPCC, 2014). The impact of climate change is experienced globally, regionally and locally, affecting both human and natural systems (Goldenberg, 2014). One of the most devastating effect of climate change is Sea Level Rise (SLR) (NASA, 2017). SLR is an increase in water volume on the earth due to basic factors such as thermal expansion and melting ice caps. Anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have increased in recent decades causing a relative increase in land and ocean surface temperatures (Elum and Momodu 2017; IPCC, 2014).

In Nigeria, the southern coastal region is known to be susceptible to climate change influences like flooding that causes environmental degradation and hazards. High increase in rainfall and subsequent flooding within the coastal region have been observed in recent years (Tawari-Fufeyin; Paul and Godleads, 2015; Israel, 2017). An example, is the most recent event of the 2012 flooding which affected over 500,000 people as internally displaced from their homes (Amangabara and Obenade, 2015) and claimed over 51 lives. The most devastating flood for the past 40 years (NASA 2012). Coasts in Nigeria are characterised by high tides that can cause flooding events. Cross River State is one of such states within the region in Nigeria that have recorded such rise in tidal waters as a result of climate change. The geographic location and elevation ranges at Longitudes 6º3’ and 6º40’ East and Latitudes 4º23.3’ and 4º38.2’ north and at 50m above sea level respectively (Okiongbo and Ogobiri, 2011) after inland which makes it vulnerable to flooding. The state, especially its coastal communities are heavily populated with the people being closer to land degradation effects. The State has major crude oil and gas reserves which accounts for over 30% flaring in Nigeria.

This project seeks to investigate the effect of the consequences of climate change in Calabar Municipal and Calabar South local government areas and the effective policies for coping with these changes to reduce the vulnerability of the environment to extreme weather conditions.

Oil and gas exploration and production in the Niger Delta has enhanced the economy (Ite et al., 2013), but also led to several environmental and health hazards. According to Odubo (2014), Cross River State was reported to be one of the worst affected state in the 2012 flooding. Climate change and sea level rise will have a negative impact on Calabar Municipal and Calabar South local government areas, disrupting business, farms and river systems. I intend to investigate the direct and indirect effects of coastal flooding in Calabar Municipal and Calabar South local government areas of Cross River State and the working policies for adaptation and mitigation of flooding in these areas.

The issue of climate change induced sea level rise is crucial. From history deadly floods have been recorded with death tolls of over 100,000 people. For example the 1931 china flood with a record of above 2500000 death, the 1938 yellow river flood in china with about 5000000-700000 deaths, the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami with about 230000 (USEPA 2002). The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED) reported that over a period of 1995-2015 about 606000 deaths was recorded owing to weather related disasters (CRED 2015). In Nigeria over a period of 1985-2014 about 11 million lives have been affected, 1100 deaths recorded and asserts worth 17 billion dollars have been damaged (Nkwunonwo, Malcom and Brian 2015).

Cross River State is of high economic importance to Nigeria because of the abundant oil deposits. With projected sea level rise from 0.5 – 1m by 2100 (IPCC 2014), people will be forced to leave their homes. Thus, the government will be faced with several challenges (Sayne 2011, Odubo 2014). About 3. 8 million people in the Niger Delta are at risk of flooding. This can be avoided and/or the impact reduced if, the Nigerian government will implement the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) commitment, made in the Paris agreement and make effective policies relevant to coastal flooding, to drastically reduce Nigeria’s emissions from business as usual (BAU) to conditional levels (INDC 2015). Nations like the UK amongst others who have implemented the INDCs have made significant progress with tackling exasperated flood issues (Haigh and Nicholls 2017)

This study is intended to find means to a lasting solution to the issues below:

1. Are Cross Riverines aware of climate change and the impact?

2. Is the effect of sea level rise induced flooding felt in Calabar Municipal and Calabar South local government areas in Cross River State?

3. Has the government made policies to mitigate for climate change and flooding in the state?

4. What policies have been implemented and what infrastructures have been built for adaptation and mitigation?

1.5 AIM
The project aims to evaluate the effect of coastal flood in Calabar Municipal and Calabar South regions and how effective the government policies are in Cross River state.

1. To assess the effect of climate change in Calabar Municipal and Calabar South local government areas of Cross River State.

2. To evaluate individual orientation levels on climate change and its causative effects.

3. To evaluate government’s policies and implementation levels on climate change in Calabar Municipal and Calabar South Local Government Area.

4. To carry out a comparative analysis of climate change mitigation policy implementation in Nigerian using a case study of the United Kingdom.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 57 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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