This study examined the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in the Secondary Schools in Kebbi State. It employed a survey design. The study used a five-point likert scale questionnaire, which contains a total of 25-items, as a major instrument. In all, three hundred and eighty seven (387) students and fifteen (15) Agricultural science Teachers made up the sample for the study, giving rise to a total sample of four hundred and two (402). Arithmetic mean and standard deviation were the major statistical tools used for the data analysis. A reliability co-efficient using this conbach alpha was used. The result showed that non availability of standard and functional instructional materials, workshop and textbooks, lack of tools and equipment, poor teacher qualification, insufficient time, poor funding and nonchalant attitude of the government towards education are some of the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science. The study recommended among other things, that the Federal and State Ministries of Education should ensure that standard and functional workshops are built in all Secondary Schools across the nation, qualified teachers and ample time should also be provided to aid students.

1.1 Background of study
One of the serious socio – economic problems facing Nigeria as a nation is the high rate of unemployment. Baniro et-al (1998) stated that lack of proper technological orientation in our educational system is partly responsible for the extent to which the county is being pinched by economic recession. The problem is compounded by the fact that most Secondary School leavers come out from school without a good foundation in vocational education. This problem must have informed the need to propose the development of new curriculum referred to as 6-3-3-4 in September 1969. This was done in an attempt to solve contemporary issues facing the country. The 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 curriculum conference was to achieve the following goals among others;

i. diversity the curriculum

ii. make the curriculum more practical

As a fall out of this conference, agricultural science was initially introduced as a subject in federal government colleges in 1982 in an attempt to make it a case study and there after state government were to implement the system (xxxx, 19xx).

As a result of this, agricultural science is now being offered in the first three years of Secondary School all over the federation. It is intended to train individuals to acquire the necessary skills, knowledge and attitude that will engage him/her in either self or paid employment since the curriculum content is designed to equip the individual to be self employed.

It also teaches and instructs different arms of technology such as electronic, electrical, technical drawing, wood work, metal work, and building just to mention a few. A critical look at the National Policy on education will show that it is the intention of the government for Secondary School curriculum in Nigeria to provide Pre vocational skills in the following areas of technology. Metal work electronics, electricity, mechanics, local crafts and technical drawing among others

For proper implementation of the program, effective teaching methodology, adequate teaching aids, workshop tools, equipment, conductive workshop and classroom are basic requirements. It is evident that these subjects are now being taught at different levels in Secondary Schools. The program is capital intensive and in some cases requires specialized and expensive tools, equipments, materials, and facilities to provide effective training. There is also a need to sustain a maintenance culture to prolong the life of these equipment, machines and tools. Technical education is facing a great challenge today, especially with the increase in its demand. Arfo (2006) stated that “the present effort by the federal government to reduce unemployment and eradicate poverty cannot be achieved unless Vocational and Technical Education is given prominence in the country through proper funding and provision of required infrastructure, while the curriculum is enriched with entrepreneurial skills.

1.2 Statement of Problems
Vocational education had suffered vigorously from the colonial era up to the beginning of 1980s. It has been confirmed by Adeniyi (2004) that the problems related to curricula became noticeable soon after Nigerian independence from colonial rule in 1960. By min-1960s, educators and educational planners were rethinking Nigeria’s education and in particular the curriculum being taught in the schools. It was observed, for instance that the type of education offered from the mid-nineteenth century until 1960 was meant to serve colonial masters’ interest. These and other factors lead to the introduction of the 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 system of education. One of the subjects introduced in order to remedy the problem of vocation education in the country was Agricultural science. It has now been observed that the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 system is facing some setbacks which include:

– Lack of sufficient materials and equipments

– Lack of adequate funding

– Lack of qualified personnel

– Poor infrastructure such as classroom, workshops and storage facilities

– Poor attitude toward practical.

It is difficult to make any meaningful progress if these issues are not addressed. The researchers intend to take a look at these areas and suggest areas where improvements can be made.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the factors affecting the process of teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Secondary Schools in Otukpo Local Government Area of Kebbi State. Specifically, the study sought to:

1. find out instructional material factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Secondary Schools

2. determine teacher-related factors affecting the teaching and learning of Basic

Technology in Secondary Schools

3. ascertain time-related factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Secondary Schools and finally

4. find out strategies that can be used to minimize these challenges

1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the instructional material related factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Secondary Schools in Kebbi State?

2. What are the teacher-related factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Secondary School in Kebbi State?

3. What are the time-related factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Kebbi State?

4. What strategies could be used to minimize these factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Kebbi State?

1.5 Significance of the study
The present study is of great relevance to many. Beneficiaries of the findings of this work include teachers, students, curriculum planners, parents and other stake holders in education.

The findings of the study will improve the teaching styles of teachers. They will be made aware of the importance of effective ways to reach different types of learners and assess student understanding through multiple means. Agricultural science teachers will understand the importance of training and re-training themselves in order to enhance competency in the subject area. The training could be geared towards enhancement of relationship between teachers and students. Through this, teachers could become better advisers, content experts and coach and through such means, make teaching and learning more meaningful. (Eyibe, 2017)

The findings of the study will help students to appreciate the importance of technology, deepen their interest in the subject, and help them to understand what skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge based economy. Being aware of the challenges confronting teaching and learning of Agricultural science, students will be better enabled to learn and easily refine their analysis and problem-solving skills. Also experiment and observe phenomenon and to view results in graphic ways that aid in understanding. And, as an added benefit, findings will help students with technology tools and a project-learning approach. With these, students are more likely to stay engaged and on task, reducing behavioral problems in the classroom.

Curriculum Planners like the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) will benefit from this study.

1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in the Public Secondary Schools in Kebbi State. The study investigated instructional-related, time-related and teacher-related challenges. It also focused on strategies that could be employed to ameliorate the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agricultural science in Secondary Schools in Kebbi State.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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