The hardness of well water in Enugu metropolis (Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven) was determined using complexometric titration with EDTA (Ethylene Diaminetetracetic Acid) which is the most widely used complexing agent for the analysis of water hardness. During titration, indicator such as Erichrome Black-T was used which acts a triprotic acid. The following result were revealed after the analysis. The average amount of calcium and magnesium are as follows respectively. In Asata, it was 2.48mg/L for calcium and magnesium was 0.592mg/L = 3.072mg/L. Coal camp for calcium was 2.68mg/L and magnesium 2.68mg/L = 5.36mg/L whereas in New Haven, calcium was 2.48mg/L and magnesium 0.46mg/L = 2.94mg/L. With the results of the analysis shown, it was found that coal camp has high well water hardness because of its high degree of soil texture and soil pH. It can be vividly conclude that calcium and magnesium concentration in the water samples from these areas under study are above the standards set by World Health Organization and Water Quality Association. These increase result to soap solution forming a white precipitate instead of producing lathers when washing, this is because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap. Continuous consumption of these hard waters may increase the rate of cardiovascular disease and mortality among people due to the high presence of calcium and Magnesium.

1.1 Background information
Water is among the most essential requisites that nature provides to sustain life for plants and animals. The use of water by man, plants and animals is universal and that without it there can be no life. In homes, whether in the city or rural, potable water within the environment is vital for cleanliness and health. Water having secured first priority amongst man’s needs, it is also the life-blood of industry namely: manufacturing, generation of electric power, transportation and recreation. (McDonald and Kay, 1988). The demand for water is increasing rapidly with the growing population thus creating acute shortage of both surface and well waters in many localities.

Pollution and contamination of streams, lakes and underground sources has greatly impaired the quality of water available for use. (Wright, 1956). Ground water is often called well water, which occurs below the surface of the earth. The formation of well water takes place when under hydrostatic pressure the permeable rocks get saturated with water. (Singh and Dhillon, 1994). The character and quality of groundwater largely depends on the nature of the soil through which water percolates and the nature of the rock comprising the aquifer. Most aquifers in England have hard water. Limestone and chalk aquifers contain high concentrations of calcium hydrogen carbonate; dolomite aquifers are often rich in sodium chloride (Grey, 1994). Economically, groundwater is much cheaper, has good quality free from suspended solids, and except in limited areas where it has been affected by pollution free from bacteria and other pathogens (Grey, 1994).

The clean up of well water, unlike surface water is very different. In well water, clean up takes place through the porous structures of the geology. What both well water and surface water share in common is that they both clean up when pollution stops. The water body namely a river and a lake clean itself once pollution stops. However, groundwater is not able to clean itself at a rapid rate hence clean up usually targets the source of pollutants and the aquifer itself. Well water can be contaminated when organic and inorganic contaminants are released to the ground. The main force on the movement of compounds underground is gravity. Porosity of the soil and viscosity of the materials spilled onto the ground are contributing to the leaching of contaminants.(Duffus, 1998) Water hardness.

Water hardness is primarily due to the amount of calcium, magnesium and to a lesser extent, iron in the water. Water hardness can be determined by adding up the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and converting its value to an equivalent concentration of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in milligrams per litre (mg/L) of water. Water hardness in most groundwater is naturally occurring from weathering of limestone, sedimentary rock and calcium bearing minerals. Hardness can also occur locally in ground water from chemical and mining industry effluent or excessive application of lime to the soil in agricultural areas. (Well stewardship information series, 2002).

1.1.1 Environmental health concerns of hard water.
Hard water is mainly an aesthetic concern because of the unpleasant taste caused by high concentration of calcium and other ions in water. It also reduces the ability of the soap to produce lather and causes scale formation in pipes and on plumbing fixtures. Hard water can cause pipe corrosion and may increase the solubility of heavy metals such as copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in water whose concentrations above the admissible levels may cause health problems. In some agricultural areas where lime and fertilizers are frequently applied on the land, excessive hardness may indicate the presence of other chemicals such as nitrates. (British Columbia ministry of health services, health file 45,[1995], Well stewardship and information series, [2002]).

Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven are generally high potential region for ground water. Many boreholes and shallow wells were sunk in Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven. The location of these boreholes and wells are widespread and easily accessible to schools, health facilities, social gathering centers and homes. Some of these boreholes and wells which are machine drilled or man-dug have a yield of between 1m3/hr and 10 m3/hr, with an exception of a few boreholes that can produce up to 20 m3/hr. The boreholes are usually perennial even though they may experience water table fluctuations of a few meters most borehole depths range between 40 m-90 m. (LBDA, water and sanitation report, 1988.)

The water production of wells in the area is generally good and varies according to the type of aquifer (confined or non-confined), rate of recharge and depth of penetration into the aquifer. Most of these wells have seasonal characteristics and their water depths are less than 0.5 m depending on water table fluctuations. The high yields, perennial character and good water quality even though slightly saline in taste, boreholes and wells are considered excellent water sources especially in rural areas that should be protected from whatever form of pollution. (Yehdegho et al, 1997).

1.3 Statement of the problem.
Heavy metals such as lead, copper, zinc and iron may be present in an environment through natural and anthropogenic causes and their presence in trace concentrations is important both to the animal and plant development. On the contrary, if the concentration of these heavy metals surpasses the maximum admissible levels as stipulated by various organisations such as World Health Organization (WHO), American Public health Association (APHA, 1989), then plant and animal developments may be retarded because of malfunctions caused by bio- concentration of the heavy metals. For instance, lead accumulation in the body adversely affects many enzymatic systems causing lead poisoning of the heme system. High levels of iron in the body can cause a condition known as hemochromatosis, affecting the liver, pancreas and heart (Kaplan and Pesce, 1989). Macalder region in Enugu state is endowed with a variety of minerals like zinc, silver, copper and lead as exemplified in the geological map. Mining activities have been prominent in this region since 1960s. The open caves, cracks along the fault lines and excavations exposed deeper rocks rich in minerals hence increased chances of contact with agricultural sub- soil as well as well water.

1.4 General objective.
To determine water hardness and the concentration levels of well water in Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven.

1.4.1 Specific objectives.
1. To determine the concentrations of Copper, Zinc, Lead and Iron in soil and well water in Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven.

2. To analyse spatial variations in concentrations of each heavy metal in water and soil with respect to region and seasons around the mining site (a radius of 70 km).

3. To establish the extent to which the geology of the area influences water hardness levels of the well water from boreholes and other sampling points.

1.5 Hypotheses.
1. Well water and sub-soils in Asata, Coal Camp and New Haven do not contain soluble heavy metals in concentrations that surpass the guidelines by WHO, APHA and other organisation guidelines.

2. Selected heavy metal concentrations do not increase further away from macalder (epicentre of the mining activities).

3. The geology of the area does not influence water hardness of boreholes and wells.

1.6 Justification.
The surface waters adjacent to Lake Victoria have substantially changed over a short period because of the increased anthropogenic activities in the lake and its catchments. The lakeshore and some sections of the inflowing rivers are heavily polluted by municipal and industrial discharges (Omole, 2003). Some of the industries responsible for the pollution include tannery, fish processing, sugar mills, abattoirs (LVEMP, 1999). Macalder was/is an active mine site for Gold, Copper and Silver. The presence of such minerals is associated with other trace metals such as Zinc, Lead and Iron ores. It is therefore imperative that groundwater quality be monitored and assessed regularly for inorganic and organic pollutants.

World Health Organisation (WHO) has guidelines pertaining to the maximum concentration limits (MCL) for all the heavy metals in both water and soil. The presence of these heavy metals in drinking water and soil surpassing the given limits poses a health risk to plants, animals and humanity in general. A chemical and environmental assessment giving an analytical account of the concentration levels of some selected heavy metals was imperative. Water is an important commodity to humanity and animals and should be safe from any sort of elemental pollution. Soil remains the medium through which plants get their nutrients in a soluble form. It therefore means that polluted soil passes on the pollutants to the plants.

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