The purpose of the study was to investigate the role NGOs play in peace building in Maiduguri in Nigeria. As an Educational study, the study did not cover entire Maiduguri, but a number of individuals from selected districts were taken to represent the population. The officials of NGOs were included to establish NGOs' humanitarian roles in peace building and their influence in Maiduguri. Issues on how NGOs use scarce resources management method to address conflict were analyzed. The study established the means through which NGOs provide forums for conflicting communities in Maiduguri to sort out their differences. The study identified the possible ways through which the NGOs could facilitate public awareness about peace building in Maiduguri. The research sort to establish which humanitarian roles NGOs play in peace building and what their influence is among the communities in Maiduguri. Also how NGOs use scarce resource management methods to address conflict? Thirdly the research sought the answer on how NGOs provide forum for conflicting communities in Maiduguri to bring peace. Lastly the research sought to establish possible ways through which

NGOs facilitate public awareness about peace building in Maiduguri. The study employed Human needs theory (HNT) developed in the 1970s and 1980s as a generic or holistic theory of human behavior. It is based on the hypothesis that human have basic needs that have to be met in order to maintain stable societies as John Burton describes. The research design adopted in this study was survey in which the researcher went to the field to collect data directly. The sample size in this study was 210 respondents. In this study, the researcher employed simple random sampling technique to select 210 respondents from the population. Questionnaires and interviews were used in data collection. The analysis of data in this study was descriptive in nature. Data was presented in tables with emphasis to frequencies and percentages. The study established that NGOs play a crucial role in peace building in Maiduguri. The study found out that NGOs provides; food, clothing, water and tents in case of calamity. This was attributed to the fact that basic needs and health services are basic for the survival of every community. It was also established that NGO's settling conflict affected person's leads to peace building. When natural resources are well managed conflicts are minimized. The NGOs provided fora meetings during which residents were given awareness concerning peace and peace building. The study revealed that NGOs organized social functions once per year. These were the NGOs who organized major events once per year like Tecla Lorupe Peace Race (TLPR) which is an annual event. Several ways were used by NGOs to facilitate public awareness in peace building in Maiduguri. Among them were fortnight meetings that were held by NGOs. The main agenda of the meetings held by NGOs was or} peace building. The NGOs play a crucial role in peace building in Maiduguri. This is through provision of basic need as humanitarian assistance example of food relief, clothing water and tents which are the underlying causes of the conflicts. NGOs are important especially those that champion for scarce resource management. Most of the NGOs have taken the initiative of drilling of boreholes to provide enough water points for livestock and people, establishment of health centres and restocking of livestock after rustling. The NGOs provided forum where warring communities to meet and residents given awareness concerning peace and peace building. The study recommended that there is need for more donors to support the NGOs in Maiduguri in provision of humanitarian services. NGOs should step up their involvement in creating and sustaining grazing enclosures. On public awareness in peace building more forums should be sought to make Maiduguri inhabitant have knowledge in peace building and regular meetings should be held to preach peace among the residents of Maiduguri.

Highest on the list of prime value for Maiduguri a town in Bornu state, Nigeria, is peace. Peace is the most valuable public commodity, yet the most elusive (Francis David, 2006). These four years (2009-2014) of Insurgency has brought loss of lives and halted economic activities in various parts of Maiduguri. The activities of bokoharam have brought devastating effects on Maiduguri which has resulted in loss of lives both human and livestock, suffering, destruction of infrastructures and public/private facilities, disruption of economic/socio-economic activities like agricultural, trade etc. This situation has threatened not only the internal peace and security of Maiduguri but also the peace in Nigeria and beyond. So alarming is the fact that most of these areas affected by insurgency lack the will to stop this social charade and have fallen prey to continuous usury and subtle manipulation by politicians who take advantage of this situation to involve in shady deals like kidnapping and arm deals using insurgency as a cover (Chiedu, 2013). Peace building has therefore become the most pressing challenge faced by Nigeria at large and Maiduguri in particular. This situation is so partly because of feudal system of leadership which encourages total submission to authority without question which carries with it, ineffective terror control means.

Despite the effort of government through its institutions like the armed forces, religious bodies, NGOs etc, to curb the excesses of insurgence in Maiduguri, peace has continued to elude her and sustainable development, stopped. On that note, this project will seek to show the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.

Although insurgency is not easily defined, it may be said to be the use of force, usually violent, as a means of coercing a target population to submit to the will of the terrorists (Asika,4:2009). Insurgency is intended to elicit or maximise fear and publicity, making no distinction as to combatants and non combatants in a conflict.

There is no legally agreed upon definition of the term ‘Insurgency’, but a recent United Nations (UN) document describes it as any ‘act which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organisation to do or abstain from doing any act’. The word ‘Insurgency’ is both emotionally and politically laden, particularly as it imports issues of national liberation and self-determination. Insurgency takes many forms, including political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious and ecological issues. The taxonomy of Insurgency, including precipitating motivations and considerations, is now a subject of intense study. Whether the one as seen in Maiduguri can be reduced to a type may be an interesting subject, but for purposes of this work, the primary concern is the threat of insurgency. Insurgency is one objective of organised terrorism, just as terrorism is one of several strategies of insurgency. Both terrorism and insurgency may be used by states in their internal operations. Terrorism and terrorist tactics constitute part of the strategies and tactics of insurgency. The operational tactics are essentially those of guerilla warfare. The object is to intimidate, frustrate and raise the feeling of uncertainty, imminent danger and the loss of hope, so as to cripple or limit all aspects of human activity and normal livelihoods. Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, MEND and, lately, Jama’atu Ahlissunnah Lidda’anati Wal Jihad, are currently international and local Nigerian examples of terrorist networks. Until recently, Nigerian terrorist activity was thought to be motivated by ethnocentric considerations. Currently, there appears to be a pronounced religious content in the character of insurgency in Maiduguri. A few of the earlier experiences merit examination here, as a guide in estimating the character, trend and intensity of the current campaign, as well as the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.

Previous research works on the role of NGOs in peace building in Insurgency affected areas especially Maiduguri shows that there is no government that can take on single handily, the weight of peace building in form of aid. Among the various actors that participate in these processes are the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which fulfil a pivotal role in terms of establishing and maintaining essential services like assisting refugees and internally displaced populations and helping to strengthen societies.

NGOs increasingly work "in the field," providing humanitarian relief and development assistance in post terror places like Maiduguri. As they carry out their work, they face many serious problems. Insurgencies often deny them access to those in need, terrorist groups demand payoffs, and local violence threatens the safety and even the lives of field personnel. Donors also subject these NGOs to political pressure, diminishing their neutrality. Nongovernmental Organizations face a lot of challenges in the discharge of their duties often caused by Insurgent activities. They are faced with the dilemma; should they negotiate with terrorists to deliver aid, or should they maintain independence and impartiality. Some Nigerian agencies like WACOL operate only through local partners because they cannot negotiate with terrorist-affiliated groups. Red Cross has resorted to having armed escorts and allow Movement for Peace in Maiduguri (MFPIM) and Africa Awake to supervise the aid distribution. Although impartiality is valuable for the long term operation in Maiduguri, humanitarian aid agencies feel they are forced to compromise these principles in an effort to gain aid access according Osueke (2006)

1.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to establish the role and responsibility of Non-governmental organisations in peace building in maiduguri.

1.4. Objectives of the study
These were to:
1. Establish how NGOs' humanitarian roles influence peace building in maiduguri.

2. Establish how NGOs use scarce resources management methods in peace building in Maiduguri.

3. Establish how NGOs provide forums for conflicting communities to sort out their differences as an effort in peace building in Maiduguri.

4. Identify possible ways through which the NGOs can facilitate public awareness in peace building in Maiduguri

1.5 Research Questions
1. How do NGOs humanitarian roles influence peace building in Maiduguri?

2. How do NGOs use scarce resource management methods in conflict in Maiduguri?

3. How do NGOs provide forums for conflicting communities in Maiduguri to sort out their differences as an effort in peace building in Maiduguri?

5. What are the possible ways through which the NGOs can facilitate public awareness about peace building in Maiduguri?

One of the benefits of this research work is to researchers and academics. It will be of tremendous help to governments and their agencies in tackling insurgency and the challenges that comes with it.

The findings and recommendations of the researcher will help bring to the fore the role of Nongovernmental Organizations in peace building coupled with limitations to their work.

It will also be readily available for international organizations that may need insight into what it is like for NGOs working in Maiduguri.

This research work focuses solely on the role of Nongovernmental Organization in peace building in Maiduguri. It also touched the challenges of Insurgency and how it affects the work of NGOs.

Based on the findings of this study, another research area touched is Peace building.

This research work was carried out under a tight schedule. The time frame was short in between lectures and private studies.

Another limitation faced by the researcher was delay in data collection from the various respondents. Most respondents were too busy to fill up the questionnaires due to their work schedule. This almost delayed the work.

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