Rural areas in developing countries do not have a minimum of reliable and efficient access to roads. They are also characterized by poor socioeconomic transformations. The relationship between rural roads development is still one of the major research fields in developing countries. This study, therefore, aimed to identify the rural dwellers satisfaction with road infrastructure. in Bogoro LGA. Descriptive statistics were applied to describe, compare and contrast different categories of sample units with respect to the desired characteristics. As observed from the results, before the road was constructed, it was often difficult for pedestrians and animals to pass due to low-lying swampy areas and there was no access for motorized vehicles. Now the travel time has been reduced from over an hour to 10- 15 minutes. After the construction of the road, a large number of pedestrians and animal carts as well as some motorized vehicles are used. In other words, the construction of the road is improved the day to day activity of households in the study area. As far as the average time taken to reach the main destinations using different modes of transport is concerned, it takes travelers below 30 minutes to reach farm land, fetch water, school, and nearest health center by walking. Based on the analysis made the average time taken (in minutes) to reach the main destination by means of transport used is improved after the construction of the road. There is also a significant positive correlation between distance to nearest road and distance to nearest schools, health centers and water sources. The study found overall positive social impacts after the construction of the road compared to before the road indicating that road accessibility crowds in other basic social services. Generally, in order to ensure the maximum impact of rural roads in the coming years, current constraints to agricultural production and productivity should be improved.

1.1 Background to the Study
Rural development or transformation has remained a burning issue in development efforts all over the world. This would probably remain so for several reasons. In developing countries including Nigeria, majority of the people live and find their means of livelihood in rural communities which are considered the single most coherent socio-political unit next to the family (Chiegwe, 2007). Furthermore, rural areas are characterized by high level of illiteracy, poverty, ignorance, disease, low income per head, poor infrastructure and poor living conditions. The situation makes life uncomfortable and has continued to fuel the mass influx of people from rural areas to the urban centres (Nwobi 1997; Osunde and Omoruyi 1999). Rural transformation is currently considered to be a very virile means of stemming the tide or scourge of rural-urban migration. Consequently, the problem of developing rural communities is now a major concern in the development planning of developing economies. Adewale, Obanewa and Asokhia (2002), observed that the popularization of rural development and transformation as government policy in Nigeria is aimed at integrating the rural populace into the national development process, The author add that, in this way the idea of rural development is fast growing as a priority in the basic human needs of rural people.

In the last three decades, successive governments in Nigeria have found life in rural communities most unbearable and intolerable. The situation is accentuated basically by poor economic base, lack of financial resources and the fact that the rural populace, who constitute about 70 per cent of the entire population, have benefited relatively little from government programme on rapid economic growth the country has witnessed over the years. This has prompted successive governments to undertake the provision of road infrastructure and planning (Esenjor, 1992; Oduaran, 1994; Anyanwu, 2002). Besides, the problem of underdevelopment is given expression in the great disparity between the rural areas and urban areas. This further lays credence to the increasing demand for rural transformation in development planning. The situation of underdevelopment also accounts for the reason for development policies of past governments with emphasis on rural development.

Rural roads provide basic inputs for all-round socio-economic development of the rural areas. Jalan and Ravallion (2001) indicated that provision and construction of roads and road links brings multiple socio-economic benefits to the rural areas and results in forming a strong backbone for the agro-based economy. The importance of the rural roads has been emphasized in various documents. Among these, creation of market access opportunities for agricultural products is the major one. Moreover, road transport facilities play a role in both the production and consumption decisions of every household in their day-to-day activities. Besides, road transport facilities are essential for expanding education, health service provision, trade facilitation – both within the country and the export market, and better public as well as private service provisions, including banking and insurance services, to the destitute and marginalized rural dweller. Likewise, roads serve as key infrastructural units, which provide linkages to other modes of transportation like railways, shipping, and airways.

One of the most remarkable attributes of traditional rural communities was their regular resort to collective community effort as a means of meeting common challenges. For many centuries through this indigenous arrangement, communities were built and fortified for their collective security; roads were constructed, bridges were built to facilitate

transportation, and forests cleared to make way for farmland and boost agricultural activities. Before the advent of the white-man or colonial rule, the Nigerian communities had perfected this local mechanism through which the people identify common needs, mobilize existing human and material resources for meeting the identified needs and execute them collectively. This communal system helped to inculcate in the young ones, the spirit of self-help and self-reliance, while also frequently reinforcing the idea that the members of each community were the primary architects of their own destiny (NYSC 20 years of Service Report, 1994).

Attempt at redressing this decline in infrastructural facility and promoting development led to increased interest in rural development. The renewed interest in rural development in recent years is also accentuated by the realization that the bulk of the Nigerian population, (64% to be precise) are rural dwellers (Imhabekhai, 2009). It is true that a situation where the greater proportion of the nation‟s population and vital resources for development are poverty stricken and cannot play the expected active roles in development activities, will make the rate of development to remain low.

A lot of efforts have been undertaken particularly in Bauchi State to promote desirable changes that would usher in meaningful living standard for the rural people. These efforts have gained expression in the provision of a number of projects initiated for the people in Bauchi State. A great number of projects have been reportedly executed throughout the state. For example, in Bauchi Central, programmes executed include: erosion control, the building of civic centre, renovation of primary schools, building of town hall, health

centres, provision of electricity, rehabilitation of roads and provision of bore hole. In Bauchi South, the projects/programmes executed mainly include, the provision of bore-boles, electricity, creation of access road, construction of primary school buildings, construction of a modern town hall, health centre, construction and capacity building in terms of financial and technical assistance to local communities, while in Bauchi North, projects such as market, town hall, electricity, tarring of roads, construction of bridge in Okaigben- Ewohimi and Esiori-Evha, school buildings, creation of access roads, health centres and school library in Okpe/Ijaja have been executed.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
There has been a lot of propaganda on the rural road infrastructure in Bauchi State. Some people have asserted that inspite of the plethora of programmes which reportedly have been executed by past governments in Bauchi State, there appear not to be any concrete evidence of their impact. On the other hand, some others have argued that road infrastructure have impacted positively on the people. It is therefore, not certain what the true situation is. Besides, adults in rural communities are major stakeholders in road infrastructure. Their participation is expected to play significant role in ensuring the success of road infrastructure. Furthermore, adults‟ input as major participants have not been taken into consideration in the daily routine review or assessment of road infrastructure. Yet, adults input in terms of their view on road infrastructure implementation is necessary in seeking to improve the quality of road infrastructure and ensuring that they achieve the purpose for which they are provided. In the circumstance, therefore, it is proper to obtain empirical evidence on the implementation of road infrastructure based on the views of the adults in order to ascertain the true situation of things. Hence, the central problem being investigated in this study is: What is the perception of adults involved in road infrastructure on the implementation of the rural road infrastructure, especially in terms of their usefulness and the extent to which the people are involved?

1.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to;

1. Identify the types of rural development projects embarked upon or provided in Bauchi State;

2. Determine how the adults are satisfied with the projects or programmes in terms of their usefulness;

3. Ascertain the adults overall rating of the implementation of road infrastructure;

4. Establish the perception of the adults on the extent to which the rural populace are involved in the implementation of road infrastructure;

1.5 Research Questions
In order to resolve the major issues raised in the statement of the problem, and achieve the purpose of the study, the following questions were formulated to guide the study

1. What types of rural development projects are provided in Bauchi State?

2. How do the adults are satisfied by the projects?

3. What is the adults overall rating of the execution of road infrastructure or projects in terms of the level of success?

4. To what extent are the rural populace involved in the execution or implementation of the projects?

1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study.

Ho1: There will be no significant difference in the perception of male and female adults on the type of rural development projects executed in the three Senatorial Districts of the State.

Ho2: The perception rating score of the adults on the usefulness of rural development projects provided will not be significantly different in the three Senatorial Districts.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the perception score of the adults across the three Senatorial Districts in their overall rating on the execution of rural development projects in terms of the level of success attained.

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
This study focuses on evaluating the implementation of rural road infrastructure based on the perception of the adults populace who are reportedly involved. The opinion of the adults as major stakeholders was explored in relation to the various development projects provided in the area, to ascertain the level of usefulness, the extent of attainment of the objectives of road infrastructure, extent of involvement of the rural dwellers, the level of performance as well as the strategies employed for their implementation.

1.8 Limitation of the Study
A potent limitation came from the scarcity of information on rural road infrastructure/projects performance or implementation and the general public apathy towards providing vital information for research. There is paucity of information arising from few empirical studies carried out to evaluate the implementation of development-oriented based programmes in rural communities. Generally speaking, people are scared and skeptical in volunteering information when it comes to research.

The other limitations are time and financial constraints. The available and financial resources were grossly inadequate. This partly explains why only one (1) state was chosen for the research. The findings of this study may, therefore, be limited in terms of application of findings and recommendation. This would require that the study be replicated in other parts of the federation

1.9 Significance of the Study
This study is significant for a number of reasons. In the first place, it is expected to provide new sets of data based on empirical study on rural road infrastructure implementation. It is also hoped that the data to be generated will assist policy makers and implementers of community road infrastructure to take appropriate measures that would ensure proper or successful implementation of rural road infrastructure.

As a corollary of the above, findings made will help to raise the level of people‟s awareness of the need to identify with, and participate in the implementation of rural road infrastructure.

Also, the findings of the study will provide government agencies, non- governmental agencies and members of rural communities with vital information that will enable them take a decision as to whether or not to evolve new strategies for implementing rural road infrastructure in the state. These new strategies will serve as models which could be tried out in other rural communities in Nigeria.

Furthermore, it will help policy makers evolve and adopt measures that would ensure road infrastructure are not only successfully and effectively implemented, but also durable for the benefit of future generations.

Besides, to the best of the researcher‟s knowledge, only a few evaluative studies of government projects in the rural area have been undertaken. Even then, none has been comprehensive and holistic. There has been periodic evaluation by some of the implementers of these programmes after implementation as a routine process. This study is therefore, significant because it looks at the overall government intervention in rural areas of Bauchi State. Consequently, new data generated and analysed will yield better insight into problems and prospects of implementing rural development projects by government‟s change agents.

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