This research examined the Cost Implications of delayed project in construction projects and their effect on groundwater projects completion and cost escalation in public Universities. The study employed theories of project, management, planning, execution and control. The study employed mixed research using questionnaires and later on different interviews were carried out to get information from the sample of 87 respondents. Data collected were analysed using SPSS and data described by using percentage and coefficient of variation and presented using tables. The study found that time allocated to the design phase was statistically significant correlated with financial constrains; payment difficulties; and design phase changes order while poor site management and supervision was statistically significant correlated with unpredictable weather condition and shortage of site workers. Financial constrains; related material problems; payment difficulties; and lack of experience in contraction had positive statistical influence on cost overrun in public Universities; however, design changes, unpredictable weather condition, fluctuation in the cost of contraction materials, shortage of site workers and incorrect planning and schedule had positive significant relationship with delay in time completion in public Universities. The researcher recommended that; contractors should consider proper planning in order to avoid delays during the constructional stage, develop action plan, organise payment and structure for all stages of work on the project. While consultant should be flexible in evaluating projects, comparing between the cost and high quality should be considered. Clients should choose team to do and track project sustainable competence and experience in groundwater projects.

1.1 Background to the Study
Delays and disruptions are among the challenges faced in the course of executing of groundwater construction projects. Delays, as well as disruptions, are sources of potential risks that current studies are looking into ways to manage (Kikwasi, 2012). Various studies (Finnerty, 1996; Miller and Lessard, 2001, Baloi and Price, 2003; Cohen and Palmer, 2004 ;) have identified sources of and types of construction risks that need to be managed as part of project management process. There are also risks and factors that affect construction project delivery time which are also causes of delays (Zou, et al., 2006; Aiyetan, Smallwood and Shakantu; 2008).

Delays and distractions have had effects to groundwater construction projects. Some of these effects are: time overrun cost overrun, arbitration, total abandonment dispute and litigation. (Yaw Frimponga, 2002; Sambasivan and Soon, 2007). Groundwater exploration (siting of boreholes) which involves geophysical surveys conducted at the ground surface using highly complicated equipment, borehole sampling and geophysical logging of the borehole with highly sophisticated well-logging equipment (Frimpong et al,2002).

Borehole drilling and Construction; which involves drilling, installing the casing, placing a well screen and filter pack, if required, grouting to provide sanitary protection, and developing the well to ensure sand-free operation at maximum yield. (Frimpong et al, 2002). Pumping test and water quality analysis; which involves pumping a well at a certain rate, recording the drawdown in the pumping well, monitoring and conducting water quality tests.

Civil works and explorations which involves construction of well base pads and installation of appropriate pump. (Frimpong et al, 2002). The nature of works in groundwater projects and the environment within which they are built make such projects susceptible to delay and cost overruns. Poor technical performance due to inappropriate planning result number of wells abandoned and thereby causes project delay and cost overruns. Work in these projects depends largely on equipment, plants and materials, project may be delayed without effective and efficient procurement procedures.

Numerous series of activities are involved in the water-drilling project and reluctant to use of scheduling techniques and update schedules on a regular basis are needed. A great deal of coordination among these activities is required to evade delay, especially in public projects. borehole drilling and construction; which involves drilling, installing the casing, placing a well screen and filter pack, if required, grouting to provide sanitary protection, and developing the well to ensure sand-free operation at maximum yield. Pumping test and water quality analysis; which involves pumping a well at a certain rate, recording the drawdown in the pumping well, monitoring and conducting water quality tests.

Civil works and explorations: which involves the construction of well base pads and installation of appropriate pump. Management of Groundwater construction projects involves a great deal of managing risks. Managing risks involves planning, identifying, analysing, developing risk handling strategies, monitoring and control.

Project team members particularly clients, consultants and contractors should mitigate delays when playing their respective roles. Cohen and Palmer (2004) identify sources of construction risks to include changes in project scope and requirements, design errors and omissions, inadequately defined roles and responsibilities; insufficient skilled staff; force majeure; and new technology. Baloi and Price (2003) categorize construction risks as social, technical, commercial, economic, construction, financial, legal, natural, logistics, and political.

Similarly, Mills (2001) lists three most important risks to include weather, the productivity of labour and plant and the quality of material. Other researchers such as Finnerty (1996), and Miller and Lessard (2001) have categorized same risks in addition to regulatory, supply, demand, operational, sovereign and completion . Time-related risks identified by Zou et al (2006) that are have influence on project delivery are: design variations, tight project schedule, excessive approval procedures in administrative government departments, incomplete approval and other documents, variations by the client, unsuitable construction program planning and inadequate program scheduling. Aiyetan et al (2008) point out that the three most significant factors that adversely affect construction project delivery time performance are: quality of management during construction; quality of management during design, and design coordination. The purpose of this study is to identify causes and effects of delays in public Universities groundwater construction projects.

1.2 Statement of Problem
As the human population, industries and irrigation schemes increase the demand for water increases too. To arrest this situation, Groundwater Exploration & Exploitation activities are necessary. Though construction of the groundwater project is the main alternative sources for water supply, there are a number of factors that cause the delay and cost overruns of the project. Serious factors cause delay and cost overruns for constructions of groundwater projects to include delays in payment to contractors, information delays, funding problems, poor project management, compensation issues and disagreement on the valuation of work done.

Other causes are conflicts among the involved parties, project schedule changes, supply or procurement problems, bureaucracy, multiple projects by contractors and incompetent contractors. Some of these causes were identified in countries such as Nigeria (Kikwasi, 2012). Therefore, the Government and private sectors through their agencies need to understand the Cost Implications of delayed project in groundwater construction projects in order to minimize the factors which cause delay and cost overruns in groundwater construction projects. The research examined the Cost Implications of delayed project in ground water constructions projects and their effect on groundwater projects completions and cost escalations in public Universities

1.3 Research Objectives
1.3.1 General Research Objective
The purpose of this research is to assess factors, which causing Cost Implications of delayed project in public Universities.

1.3.2 Specific Research Objectives
Specifically, the study embarked on accomplishing the following specific objectives;

i. To determine the relationship between Cost Implications of delayed project in public Universities
ii. To assess factors causing delays in construction in public Universities
iii. To assess factors causing cost overrun in construction in public Universities

1.4 Hypotheses:
H1: There is a positive correlation between at least one of the factors causing cost overrun and one of the factors causing a delay in groundwater projects.

H2: Factors for cost overrun positively contributes to cost escalations in groundwater projects.

H3: Factors for project delay positively contribute to length of time in groundwater projects.

H4: There is a positive relationship between cost escalations and time to completion for groundwater projects.

1.5 Significance of the Research
This work is important because time is one of three pillars of groundwater project management; time, cost and quality. A study on project delays will lead to a better understanding of the causes of inefficiency in groundwater construction projects. Once the most significant delay causing factors are identified, the parties to the projects shall then be able to channel their energies and resources to the specific factors thereby reducing delays to the projects.

Walker (1994) carried out an investigation in Australia on construction time performance and concluded that through improving its productivity, the construction industry can have an important role in promoting National competitiveness, and therefore in defending living standards and achieving a satisfactory rate of growth. The benefits from such improvement would include increased attractiveness of Australia as a location for investment in new areas or projects. Measures that prevent or slow steps toward improving building and construction industry are, in effect, an attack on the employment prospects and future welfare of Australian workers. Such measures would also be an attack on the potential performance of Australian industry and the economy generally.

The above view can also be applicable to Nigeria and reinforces the argument for attention to construction time performance. The study on groundwater construction is important in the Nigerian context because groundwater potential contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. The findings of the research study can be different ways few among many include. First, the fulfillment of the masters’ degree of Project Management second the dissertation can a good insight for other students who will be interested on the topic in future, third the findings can be of great help for improvement of the performance of project in Nigeria construction agency. Lastly the study will be of great help for me in person as a future project manager merged in construction of ground water sector.

1.6 Organization of the Research
The structure of this research report meets the requirements of the guideline of the open university of Nigeria. This study consists of five chapters, chapter one comprised of introduces the problem, it comprises of background information the statement of the problem as well as research objective and question also the chapter gives an insight of how the study was relevant in the society. Chapter two comprised with literature review as well as a conceptual framework of the study, Chapter three merges in the methodology in which the study had conducted. Chapter four describe the data presentation and discussion of findings and Chapter five merge in the conclusion and recommendation of the study including the area identified for further study.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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