The nature of the construction work is risky and needs attention in integrating health and safety compliance in to the entire process. The safety and health of workers should not be taken as a luxury but rather a necessity. Health and safety at construction sites deals with both physical and psychological well being of workers on construction sites and other persons whose health is likely to be adversely affected by construction activities. The major objective of this research is to present findings of health and safety compliance practices in building construction recently constructed in Awka metropolis, Nigeria under Bamacon Engineering PLC. 50 of employees were selected for the study for which a questionnaire was distributed and additionally documented sources were looked for more accurate date including site observation. Consequently, the study result revealed that relatively through time the company is developing. Better health and safety (HS) practice but there are also limitations such as lack of management motivation and very low level of implementation of occupational safety and health standards, rule and policies in the construction companies and Little training and orientation on safety and health standards. Based on the responses obtained from engineers, poor working conditions and environment, and lack of personal protective equipment are the main causes of accidents in the construction company.

KEY-WORDS: health and safety compliance, employee/worker, accident, injury, occupational safety and health

1.1 Background of the Study
Construction industry is one of the vital economic sectors and mainly considered as the backbone of development of all nations. Construction site is a very important place, where a considerable number of workers with various professional back ground (Vithartant, 2015) are involved in construction activities. Occupational accidents with the resulting injuries and ill health problems in workplaces insisted organizations to put much effort and develop effective strategy on occupational health and safety and sustain best practices (Ramazan, 2016). As people spend more than one-third of each day at work (Roberto, 2006), it has been an important field of interest for industries especially in developing countries to improve occupational health and safety (OHS) and productivity of employee (Ramazan, 2016). The construction sector is characterized by countless incidences of injury, absenteeism, death and huge compensation and replacement cost resulted from accidents the hazardous conditions in construction sites (Mulinge, 2014). Occupational injuries pose a major public health and development problem which could be prevented implementing appropriate occupational health and safety practices. Out of the total 3 billion workers in the world over 85% of them work and live in condition which no access to proper and effective occupational health and safety services and facilities (Rantanen, 2012).

According to (Seifedin 2014) the safety of a construction is one of an essential components in the processes of construction when it can be preferred as a mitigation measurement before an incidence occurring. However, in all over Nigeria, millions of daily laborers work in big constructions through unsafe working environment and without supportive and protective equipment. They do not have protective caps, hand gloves, eye glasses, working clothes, shoes and others. They work on high rise buildings standing on old and inclined wooden scaffolds and ladders; they even transport heavy construction materials on them. Moreover, the constructions do not have safety nets, restraint and fall arrest systems. As a result, a dozen of daily laborers get different serious injuries. Many, in fact, lose their lives.

However, construction project pose enormous challenges to not only finish within an owners‟ schedule and budget, but to also eliminate and minimize harmful impacts to the environment. Construction has significant impacts on the natural environment (Hendrickson and Horvath 2000). Even a minor impact, such as a small release or spill of hazardous substance can cause a health or environmental threat and lead to costly cleanup activities.

In Nigeria, during the last few years several accidents have occurred on various sites of construction projects all over the country where some of them were cause for fatal injuries. Due to this, construction sector become one of three most hazardous and dangerous industries with frequent and high rate occurrence of accidents which entails both fatal and non-fatal injuries and ill-health problems to workers, practitioners as well as great loss of economy to the company and country at large (Hannan, 2017). Although many prevention efforts and intervention programs have been undertaken throughout the world, it is recognized that construction workers continue suffering from low to extremely high risk fatal and non-fatal injuries. Only 19% of global work related deaths are thought to account due to accidents and the remainder being due to ill-health problems and diseases (Karen, 2009). An estimate of studies conducted by ILO indicated that more than 100,000 construction workers die every year at world level i.e. death of around one worker every five minutes (ILO, 2010). In most countries the construction industry continues to account for a disturbingly high proportion of both fatal and non-fatal accidents and injuries of workers (Thewodros, 2016).

Safety can be defined as the state of being “safe”, the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Safety can be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economic losses. It can include protection of people or of possessions. Similarly construction site safety can be defined as the efficient and effective implementation of the policies and tasks necessary to satisfy the safety of a construction firm‟s employees and management. Construction safety focuses on the careful management of the processes involved in the production and distribution of products and services within construction sites (Bernold et al. 1993). The subject of health 0and safety is very wide and can be approached from different perspectives such as management, medicine, psychology, sociology and economics to investigate the determinants and implications of health and safety for individual workers, economies and societies (pouliakas and Theodossiou, 2010).

Safety compliance is essential knowledge in a project management area which recognized in the guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide, cited by Crete al. 2011). Safety compliance is expected to take account of all risk and accidents that may possibly be expected that put project employee at risk. The Health and Safety (H & S) of any workplace is very important to diminish such risks, legally and ethically, but in mainly dangerous contexts such as the construction industry H & S takes on perilous importance as daily activities of the industry are highly unsafe. It is thus important to identify suitable safety activities and strategy, accommodating potential serious H&S problems.

1.2 statement of the problem
The construction industry is a sector of the economy that transforms varies resources into construction physical economic and social infrastructure necessary for socioeconomic development. But it has been seen as one of the hazardous industries. This is because the industry has a poor health and safety performance record compared to other industries all over the world.

With the above statement in mind projects at Bamacone Engineering PLS are safety and health progress is evaluated on daily basis. Accident and Injured person are the major parameters which are assessed continuously. However, fatalities occur at construction sites and Near-miss is mostly occurred injuries (Banacone engineering PLC monthly report, 2019).

Construction industries particularly, the construction site poses many hazards that can cause injury to workers, from transport in the workplace, exposure to excessive noise and harmful substances, dangerous large equipment and plant, risk of slips from a wet working environment, manual handling and working unsafe machinery, risks of fire and explosions (ILO, 2006). Most of the accidents in workplaces happened due to combination of various complex hazard factors. The leading causes of work related hazards in construction industries include physical hazards, biological hazards, mechanical hazards and chemical hazards. These hazards are mostly prevalent in project sites of construction industries (Abera, 2016).

A variety of studies, for example (Glendon and Litherland, 2001, Kheni, 2008, Zeru Tariku, July 2014) have investigated the construction health and safety within developed countries. In the majority of these studies, researchers have either developed a new framework model or replicated an already tested one with a view to improving its adequacy. However, there is a lack of research in this area in the context of developing countries with specific requirements. Although much research has been directed at health and safety, very little is concerned with the Nigeria and the particular characteristics of health and safety compliance practice in their environment. ( Alhajeri, 2011). Some prior studies, Evaluation of Health and Safety practice in building construction a case study in Awka metropolis by (Fekele, 2016), Occupational safety and health profile for Nigeria by (Dawit Seblework, ILO Consultant, Oct.2016), Study of Health and Safety performance indicators on Nigeria public (road & Building) construction project in case of Awka metropolis city by (Zeru Tariku, July 2014) and others few studies has been done in relating to safety and health management in Nigeria. But from practice and experience in the construction industry injuries and fatalities resulted from accidents in the construction industry still are an obstacle in the building constructions and to identify which phase of building construction need more focus or emphasis of health and safety compliance practice.

According to the Awka metropolis construction office report during 2016/17 as examined public construction project more than 10 workers were died due to unsafe practice of construction consequently, Awka metropolis fire protection agency has been mentioned the construction disaster that more than 42 construction professionals were disabled an passed away because of involving unsafe practice during the year of 2015-2016/17.

1.3Research Question of the study
I. What is the level of application of Safety measures in public Private building construction project in the study area.
2. What is the effects of the various Safety measure used in the study area
3. What is the frequency of occurrence of various types of site accidents in the study area?

1.4 Objectives of the study
1.4.1 Main Objective

the study aims at improving on the framework of existing Safety measure for effective public Private building construction project.

1.4.2Specific Objective
I. To identify the level of application of Safety measure in public Private building construction project in the study area
2. To access the effects of the various Safety measure used in the study area
3. To analyze the frequency of occurrence of various types of site accidents in the study area?

1.5Significance of the study
The significance of the research stems from the need to develop good health and safety compliance system in construction company (Bamacon) and thus the findings of the study will contribute to the improvement of the practices of health and safety compliance system of the company. In addition, this finding of study intends to provide some information to government about the status of health and safety compliance practice in the construction sector so that it will allow the government to introduce rules and regulations in construction safety in Nigeria.

1.6Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of this research is limited to assess safety and health compliance in Private building construction project which are constructed by Bamacon Engineering P.L.C and projects located in Awka metropolis, Nigeria.

Because of the time shortage and corona virus the research addresses only building construction project that constructed in Awka metropolis. It was difficult to collect sufficient data and give more empirical results and the finding of the result may not represent as a general representation in the construction industry.

1.7Organization of the study 
The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one presents introduction of the study. Chapter two presents the literature review. Chapter three presents the research methodology. Chapter four presents the results and discussion. Chapter five presents the conclusions and recommendations. Finally, the references used in the study are listed at the end. Questionnaire use is also included in the Appendix part.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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