The research aims at determining the effects of socio-economic characteristics as well as the level of participation of the residents in Karu metropolis in tourism with a view of identifying the hindering factors that determines their tourism habits and making recommendations for suitable tourism participation. A structured questionnaire was designed, validated and administered through cluster sampling procedure. The review of literature was made on determinants of tourism and its inter-related activities. The results from the analysis of the data provided by the respondents revealed that the residents were involved more in local travels as compared to international tours. From the test of association between selected variables with tourism habits, variables like ethnic group, religious affiliation, financial capability, work schedule were the significant determinants of tourism habits among the residents to improve tourism participation, the study outlined some recommendations which included; funding by Government through creation and implementation of policies that will support tourism participation financially, construction and maintenance of good roads, improved security, awareness programmes on the importance of tourism and its participation.

Title Page
Table of Contents

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Research Question
1.3 Aim
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Limitation
1.7 Definitions of Terms

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Concept of Tourism
2.3 Types of Tourism
2.4 The Roles of Tourism in Economic Development
2.5 Overview of Tourism Development in Nigeria
2.6 Places of Attraction in Karu
2.7 Determinants of Tourism Habits
2.8 Effect of Socio Economic characteristics
2.9 Global Patterns of Tourism
2.10 Constraints to Tourism Participation
2.11 Lesson Learned in Literatures

Chapter Three
3.0 Methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 The Study Area
3.4 Relevant Data and Sources
3.5 Survey Instrument
3.6 Sampling Frame and Size
3.7 Sampling Technique
3.8 Data Analysis
3.9 Significance Level
3.10 Chi-Square Test

Chapter Four
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Characteristics of Tourism Patterns of Respondent
4.3 Determinants of Tourism Habits
4.4 Analysis of the Constraints to Tourism Participation

Chapter Five
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion, Implication of Findings and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of Findings
5.3 Major Findings
5.4 Implications of Findings
5.5 Conclusion
5.6 Recommendations

1.1 Background of study
Tourism is a major and still growing industry, which has serious impacts (sometimes positive, more often negative) in the countries where it takes place (Brown & Hall, 2018). Related to this global growth in tourism industry, countries started to give more significance to tourism (Öktem, 2013). Tourism, specifically various forms of small-scale, indigenous tourism, can play a role in sustainable development in certain (Dearden,2015). Tourism is rapidly becoming one of the most important sectors of economic growth in the world (Lansing & De Vries,2017). The tourism industry has significant impacts not only in itself but also for other sectors such as hospitality industry, service industry, manufacturing industry and the economic progression of a nation as a whole (Redwan, 2017).

The examination of motives for setting up a tourism business reveals that tourism was seen as an industry which offered a better lifestyle and a higher standard of living while promising a pleasant work environment and high levels of human interaction (Szivas, 2021). Not surprisingly, then, as adventurous tourists began to take an interest in more 'exotic' Third World destinations-places where economic options were often limited as a result of poor communications, low commodity prices and/or lack of a modern manufacturing base-tourism became a seemingly obvious choice as a tool for development (Brown & Hall, 2018).

Tourism will continue to be a major driver of economic vitality throughout the world. However, the economic thought of the past, based on optimizing individual utility, without regard for social and environmental externalities, may explain much of the social disparity and economic inequality which now characterize the current world (Bailey & Richardson, 2012). Tourism offers a wide variety of jobs with diverse human capital requirements. The different sectors of tourism, such as accommodation, catering, leisure facilities, transportation and other services, are associated with a wide range of occupations that require different types and levels of skills (Szivas, 2021).

Tourism is important economic development sector for most countries and a gate which integrates countries to international markets (Kaaya, 2014). Unlike other services, tourism cannot stand alone without marketing; this shows the strong bond between the two. Tourism by its nature is sensitive and needs a lot of effort and upgrade; and the only way needs and necessities can only be fulfilled is by adjoining tourism and marketing inseparably.

Tourism sites need revenue generation in order to stay in business, to fund the running for the site, pay for maintenance and up grading. the simplest and most direct means of doing this is using revenue gained from the provision of tourist services at the site or very close to the site. alongside this, marketing can be positive used to inform, educate and communicate with tourists about the importance of recognizing the needs of social and environmental well beings for the benefits of current and future generations. Marketing for sustainable tourism marketing balance requires information and education both on-site and off-site, and interactive management of visitors on-site (Carson et al, 2014).

Identifying and prioritizing tourism specific infrastructure projects will enhance the tourism offering and increase visitor satisfaction of the destination. But structuring and delivery of modern infrastructure facilities are extremely complex. According to Grzinic and Saftic (2012) there are 7 actions which can ensure adequate tourist and related infrastructure: 1) ensure accessibility to and within the destination, 2) improve the communal infrastructure, 3) develop new accommodation capacities, 4) advance the service quality of the provided services, 5) develop the necessary infrastructure, 6) upgrade the existing accommodation capacities, and 7) focus in destination safety and cleanliness. The infrastructure is contributing positively to tourist arrivals hence the sufficient and proper development of tourism specific infrastructure is essential to develop a mature tourist destination.

Destination image can be discussed in different contexts, when it is about tourist image, it is about the impression and feelings that one can have for a place. Image in the context of tourism has an important role in experiencing of a given destination. According to Somnez and Sirakaya (2012), a good destination image is an asset to any country or region that is participating in the tourism industry. Destinations with positive images have a high probability of succeeding than those with negative destination images. The authors emphasize that a positive image is an added advantage when competing for international tourists. A positive image in a destination influences the decision making process of potential visitors to a destination.

According to Lee (2013) destination image directly affects satisfaction and indirectly affects future behaviour. Destination image has been recognized as one of the influential concepts in tourists’ destination choice process because image affects the individual’s subjective perception, subsequent behaviour and destination choice (Jeong & Holland, 2012).

The importance of tourism in developing countries is increasing at a drastic rate and the same is expected to continue in the near future (Redwan, 2017). Nigeria has an abundance of attractions of numerous types ranging from wildlife, landscape culture, scenery, history and archaeology sites that set it apart from its neighbours (Elias, 2014).

1.2. Statement of the problem
For the tourism industry to be profitable industry now and in the long term, its development and management should be according to a new competitiveness paradigm (Ritchie and Crouch 2019 in Getahun & Dhaliwal, 2017). Competitiveness is now widely accepted as the most important factor determining the long term success of organizations, industries, regions and countries (Kozak and Rimmington, 2019). In many countries tourism industry has positive influence to the nations’ economy. This is felt more in the developing countries with limited exporting options.

Because providing foreign currency which increases the countries’ currency reserve, assist the balance of payment in positive way and assist to pay foreign debt payments (Öktem, 2013).

It is widely presumed that socio economic characteristic is a leading factor responsible for destination image. The number of studies that have been carried out on the subject of Socio economic characteristics is indicative of the importance associated to the subject. Researchers (Ionel, 2013; Grzinic and Saftic, 2012) have explored the context of essential elements of successful socio economic characteristics and the actions related to it. A tourism resource rich region requires plausible planning and management for the development of such infrastructure.

The ultimate goal of any destination is to influence possible tourists’ travel- related decision making and choice through marketing activities. Understanding the images of a destination is essential for a destination which wishes to influence traveler decision-making and choice.

Destination image has been recognized as one of the influential concepts in tourists’ destination choice process because image affects the individual’s subjective perception, subsequent behaviour and destination choice (Jeong & Holland, 2012).

Destination Image is not static but changes depending on the Socio economic characteristics of the destination. Therefore, the image after visitation is much more realistic and complex than the one formed before the visitation, through secondary information (Beerli & Martín, 2014). In this respect, it is suggested that although many people have an image of destinations they have not yet visited, the most accurate, personal and comprehensive is formed through visiting there (Molina, Gómez and Martín-Consuegra, 2012).

Nigeria is the first in Africa registering large number of tourist sites in UNESCO. Despite the magnificent tourist attraction sites that exist, the country’s tourist market share within the continent is insignificant and accounted for less than two percent in 2019 (WB, 2012). It is important to identify and study the reasons behind this problem. There may be a lot of reasons which hinder to the development of tourism in Nigeria but this study has focused on infrastructure. Hence, this study identified the implications of infrastructure in tourism destination image.

Therefore, the researcher initiated to study the effects of socio economic characteristics on destination image in the Karu tourism.

It will also to look at the tourism habits among the different occupational groups within the study area.

Based on the above, this study is designed to explore the pattern of tourism habits in Karu. The study therefore, seeks to answer the following questions.

1.What is the level of engagement of the residents of Karu in Tourism?

2.What is the pattern of tourism of the resident of Karu?

3.What are the factors influencing these patter of tourism habits?

1.3 Aim
The aim of the research is to analyze the effect of socio economic characteristic on tourism habits of residents of Karu metropolis with a view to identifying the factors responsible for habits among the different occupational groups and the implication for tourism.

1.4 Objectives
1.To examine the effects of socio-economic characteristic on the tourism habits of residents of urban centres.

2.To determine the pattern of tourism habits among residents of Karu metropolis in relation to local and international trips

3.To identify the factors influencing tourism habits among the residents of Karu metropolis.

4.To draw out the implications of findings for tourism management and to make recommendations for improving tourism participation.

1.5 Significance of the Study
In Nigeria, tourism is a new field of study and as such not much attention has been given to the analysis of habits and patterns among people participating in it. Therefore, this research is a contribution which will guide planners in the provision of appropriate tourism facilities.

The findings of this research will enable tourism planners and other decision – making bodies understand their roles and enable them participate fully in boosting tourism. It will broaden awareness on tourism more especially in Nigeria. It will also provide a reference point for both local (national) and international tourism data, which will optimize compatible tourism plans.

1.6 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this research is to establish the pattern of tourism habits within Karu metropolis. A research on pattern of tourism habits may include other aspects such as places of patronage, available facilities, resources availability, components of the destination such as ancillary services, amenities etc. But the focus of this research is to establish pattern based on frequency of travel, determinants of tourism habit as well as the challenges faced by residents within Karu. The research is limited to assessing the habits of residents within Karu metropolis, Abuja.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 70 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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