LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTION IN BAYELSA STATE

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine Leadership strategies and their relationship with lecturers’ job performance in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were: to find out the predominant leadership style practiced by tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria; to determine the level of lecturers’ job performance in Bayelsa State, Nigeria and to establish the relationship between Leadership strategies and lecturers’ job performance in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The study adopted correlation research design. The target population comprised of all the 397 management, 389 deputy management, 1,190 heads of departments and 2,208 lecturers in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State who had served for at least two years in the same school. Proportional stratified and simple random sampling were used to sample 39 University management, 35 deputy management, 97 heads of departments and 181 University lecturers giving a total of 352 respondents. The data for this study was collected using Lecturer Job performance Survey Questionnaire which assessed the intrinsic and the extrinsic factors of job performance. The study concluded that the leadership style practiced by a management has a significant effect on lecturers’ job performance. It was recommended that Lecturers’ Service Commission should organize regular lecturer professional development programs to train management on the importance of using transformational leadership style as opposed to transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
A review of leadership studies indicates that the subject leadership has received much attention from various scholars since ancient times (Alvin, 2001). It is one of the most widely practiced and least understood concept. Aristotle, Plato and Machiavali made a lot of contributions on political leadership while religious leaders provided moral guidelines to their followers.

Leadership studies have taken different approaches over the years. The early studies known as ‘trait’ or the ‘great man’ theories of leadership which focused on the persona of leaders dominated the studies until 1950s. The trait theory holds the view that leadership is an innate, instinctive quality that you do or don’t have. The approach argues that leaders have distinctive physical or psychological characteristics specific to an individual that relate to or explain the behavior of such a leader (Gheselli, 1971). The behavioral approach believes that leaders are made and not born. It argues that leadership is learnt and is not a preserve of a few distinctive people. Rooted on the principles of behaviorism, it focuses on the behavior of leaders. This, according to Lewin (1930) gave rise to democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire leaders. The contingency approach attempts to predict which type of leadership style is best in which particular situation. Thus, there is no best leadership style. The four widely held contingency theories are Fielder’s contingency model, path-goal theory, situational theory proposed by Hersey and Blanchard, and Vroom-Jago Contingency Model (Evans, 1970; House, 1971).

The Full Range Leadership theory, on the other hand postulates a continuum which comprises of laissez faire, transactional and transformational leadership styles which a leader can use depending on the nature of the organization and the level of maturity of the followers (Bass, 1998; Avolio & Bass, 2004).

The success of any organization depends on the quality of its leadership. Wangai (2015) observed that management as school leaders have a duty to provide a conducive working environment that would promote employees job performance by applying appropriate leadership behaviors. In view of this, Nwakpa (2017) noted that the nature and quality of the leadership style of the management is a critical factor in attaining successful management and satisfaction of lecturers. This was supported by Kerry’s (2003) study conducted in the US which established that the leadership style of the management significantly predicted lecturer job performance. This view was corroborated by World Bank (2015) which listed management’s leadership style among the key factors affecting lecturer job performance.

Job performance is known to greatly impact on lecturer’s performance. This is because a contented lecturer would most likely put in more effort towards the success of the school. On the contrary, a dissatisfied lecturer would lazy around and students will not reap the full benefits of education (World Bank, 2015). The level of job performance should therefore be a major concern for education practitioners in Nigeria.

Various studies across the globe have shockingly revealed a very low level of lecturer job performance. In a UNESCO’s study conducted across the globe, only 8.6% of the lecturers were satisfied while 58.1% wanted to quit teaching (Oduor, 2015). In South Africa, the National Professional Lecturers Organization of South Africa’s (NAPTOSA) report indicated that 32.8% of the lecturers had a negative morale towards teaching. The study further noted that poor leadership style contributed immensely (65.5%) to lecturer job dissatisfaction. A similar study by Anguyo (2014) in Uganda indicated that 47% of the lecturers were dissatisfied.

Already, there exists various researches linking leadership styles and lecturers’ job performance in educational institutions in the West, Asia, Africa and Nigeria in general, (Maslow, 1954; Howell and Avolio, 1993; SACMEQ, 1998; Bogler, 2001; Tasmin, 2006; Ejimofor, 2007; Dentone, 2009; Poi and Sirma, 2010; Mwangi, 2013; Adeyemi, 2014; Anguyo, 2014; Muchumu and Mafwimbo, 2014; World Bank, 2015) but none has specifically explored the link between management leadership styles and lecturers’ job performance in Nigeria in the area of Full Range Leadership. This study is an attempt to contribute in this regard.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Leadership strategies and lecturers’ job performance are two fundamental factors that determine the success of any school. A management with appropriate leadership competencies can positively impact on the way lecturers undertake their duties. This is because the leadership style practised by a management will determine how enthusiastically the lecturers are going to carry out their duties which in turn will determine the students’ performance. Studies in different parts of the world have established a strong link between the Leadership strategies and lecturers’ job performance. However, little is known about Nigeria particularly in the area of Full Range Leadership as the area has remained untapped in Nigeria leading to a research gap.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine Leadership strategies and their relationship with lecturers’ job performance. It sought to find out the levels of lecturers’ job performance in relation to the leadership style practiced by tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

1.4 Objectives of the Study
(i) To find out the predominant leadership style practiced by public University management in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

(ii) To determine the level of lecturers’ job performance in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State in Nigeria.

(iii) To establish the relationship between Leadership strategies and lecturers’ job performance in tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State.

1.5 Research Hypotheses
H01: There is no statistically significant relationship between management’ transformational leadership style and lecturers’ job performance in Bayelsa State in Nigeria?

H02: There is no statistically significant relationship between management’ transactional leadership style and lecturers’ job performance in Bayelsa State in Nigeria?

1.6 Basic Assumptions
The significance of this study lay in the assumptions that:

(i) Each management practised a particular dominant leadership style in the management of a school.

(ii) All sampled respondents provided honest, accurate and adequate information which were generalized for other regions in Nigeria.

1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study would be useful to higher learning institutions and lecturers’ training colleges in designing relevant lecturer training programs that would adequately prepare lecturers for leadership. This was important because lecturer trainees are the potential management and administrators in our learning institutions.

In addition, the management has the greatest responsibility to provide effective leadership which impacts on lecturer job performance and eventually better students’ achievement. The results of the study would provide a coherent understanding of lecturers’ job performance in relation to management’ leadership style. This would inform appropriate programmes that would be put in place to strengthen the relationship between management and their lecturers and keep qualified and experienced lecturers motivated and retain them in the profession for better students’ outcomes.

Finally, the results of the study would elicit more research on the Full Range Leadership model in other areas in Nigeria.

1.8 Limitations of the Study
The nature of the design which was a correlation did not allow for the establishment of cause-effect relationships and therefore was in no way to determine or prove causation. The findings of this study were based on Likerttype questionnaires which do not allow participants to construct their own responses or allow the researcher to probe for additional information. The findings of the study should be used cautiously since intervening variables were not controlled for.

1.9 Delimitations of the Study
The study was delimited to public University lecturers in Bayelsa State. It could be possible that causes of job performance among lecturers in private schools and public schools were not similar and therefore indiscriminate study of these lecturers would confound the results. A period of at least two years was essential for lecturers to have observed and formed clear opinions about their management’s leadership behavior.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 49 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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