INFLUENCE OF FAMILY FUNCTIONING ON SEXUAL REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOURS AMONG OUT-OF-SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN LAGOS STATE

Abstract
The study investigated the relationships between family functioning and adolescents sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours of 300 out of school adolescents in Yaba LGA, Lagos State, aged 16to19 years.

A cross sectional study design using quantitative approach was adopted. Simple random sampling technique was used to give every adolescent an opportunity to participate in this study. Primary data was collected using questionnaire that comprised of scales to measure family functioning and adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours, supplemented by secondary data. Three Hypotheses were tested using one-way ANOVA, Spearman rank order correlation coefficient and two-way ANOVA. The findings showed significant differences in adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours according to the different broken home, a strong negative relationship between intact homehome and adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours(rho=-.764) and a significant combined effect between intact home, broken home and adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours. The study recommended that broken home and intact home should be emphasized and used by parents to control the activities of their children whether at home or at school.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Adolescence is the age bracket between 10-19 years - a developmental period characterized by rapid physical, psychological, social/cultural, and cognitive changes (Santrock, 2000). In this study, secondary school starting age (years) in Nigeria was last measured at 13 in 2014, according to theWorld Bank(2014), however the adolescents this study targeted were those out of school adolescent in Yaba LGA, aged 16-19 years because schools begin socializing students at the age of 16 years when they are in senior four. Although many adolescents navigate the sometimes turbulent course from childhood to adulthood to become productive and healthy adults, there is growing concern that far too many others may not achieve their full potential. Adolescence, unfortunately, is also a period fraught with many threats to the health and well-being of adolescent Koller et al.( 2009).

A minority (39.1%) reported having had a single sex partner while 60.9% reported having more than one sex partner. Prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 77.3%. Thus, many Nigeria out of school adolescents today, and perhaps increasing numbers in the years to come, are at risk for adverse outcomes stemming from their sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours such as teenage pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).

According to Kagolo, Ariba & Sande (2013), Businge, who heads Kawaala Health Centre III in Yaba LGA, Lagos, revealed that between six to seven out of 10 adolescents, who visit the clinic, had sexually transmitted diseases. Although young people are now starting sexual activity at a later age than in the past, the age at sexual initiation is still early Kibombo, Neema and Ahmed,(2007). Fourteen percent of both boys and girls aged 15–24 reported they had had sex before age 15, and 63% of girls and 47% of young boys had had sex before the age of 18.4. Even if young people 15-19 were the most likely age group to have used a condom at last sex (27% of girls and 47% of boys), this percentage is still low. Their increased vulnerability to HIV infection is still compounded by the fact that most sexual encounters are without the benefit of consistent and correct condom use. Furthermore, among girls who had sex in the last 12 months, 7.6% (15-19) and 3.8% (20-24) years had 2 or more sexual partners Kibombo, Neema and Ahmed,(2007).

Although a myriad of diverse factors associated with adolescents‘ risk behaviors have been identified Terzian, Andrews and Moore,( 2011), there is emerging interest in understanding the impact of parental influence on adolescents‘ sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours Somers and Wafa,( 2011). Parental influence is not a unitary dimension, rather, it is a multidimensional construct comprised of heterogeneous psychological and social factors. Factors, such as family connectedness, parent-adolescent communication, intact home, parental modeling and broken home, have been identified as influencing adolescents‘ sexual behavior DeVore and Ginsburg,( 2005). Studies have shown that the quality of parental communication, intact home and broken home adolescents receive appear to be strong determinants of adolescent sexual behavior Blake, Simkim, Ledsky, Perkins and Calabrese,(2001).

Miller and colleagues (1998) reckon that parents are in a unique position to help socialize adolescents into healthy sexual adults, by providing accurate information about sex and by fostering responsible sexual decision making skills. Parents can tailor the presentation of information to be consistent with their own values and relevant to the life circumstances (social and familial context) of the adolescent Jaccard, Dodge and Dittus, (2002). This is supported by observations made by Huberman (2002) that when parents approach their role as sex educators in positive, affirmative ways, young people are better able to make healthy sexual decisions and to build loving relationships. Intact home (attention, tracking, and structuring contexts) have also been found to affect adolescent risk sexual behavior.

It has been revealed that over 97 percent of Nigerian children lack the adequate parental care necessary Eremu(2000). According to Atwikirize (2011), this finding was consistent with Rutare's report (1999) that revealed that adolescents are struggling to find their identity apart from their parents. Rutare found that Nigerian society is undergoing a lot of changes and the parenting methods that worked half a century ago may not be applicable today. There is a transition between traditional parenting practices and the western broken home and there is no clear cut pattern today. The adjustments involved in a changing society have not taken place; hence, changes in the broken home and intact home like housemaids substituting as mothers seem to have had effects on the adolescents' sexual behavior.

Katwesigye (2000) summarized the current crisis in the parent responsibilities towards their children by lamenting that today's youth are a generation with no umbilical cord. His cry is for parents to be more responsible, for they have abandoned their children to housemaids, they are notgoodrolemodels and they have not built

their children's confidence. The cry for parenting school indicates that the traditional broken home and intact home have faced turmoil and are not adaptive anymore Lwanga, 2000). In Nigeria, most parents lately have left all their parenting roles to the school and peers. Thus, there was need to investigate whether parental influence was related to out of school adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours among out of school adolescents is a major public health, economic and social problem to the out of school adolescents themselves, their family and the nation at large. The percentage of out of school adolescents engaging in sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours is increasing Singh and Rogers,( 2003). At the same time, parental influence in the form of broken home and intact home among adolescents has been reported to be declining Neema and Bataringaya, (2000), Muyinda, Kengeya and Pool,(2001). Poor broken home and intact home among adolescents is likely to contribute to out of school adolescents‘ engagement in more sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours and therefore running high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, but also for girls, teen pregnancy with all its implications of dropping out of school and stigmatization that goes with premarital pregnancy. However, if the situation is not controlled or no intervention is made, there is likely to be danger of a high rate of population growth due to high birth rate, unwanted children and juveniles who may not be psychologically well adjusted and sometimes death due to malnutrition and diseases. In addition, there is likely to be high illiteracy, high crime rate and high dependency burden due to increased birth rate and school dropouts leading to alcohol and drug abuse including suicidal tendencies owing to frustration.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family functioning and how they affect out of school adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours in Yaba LGA, Lagos State.

Objectives
The objectives of the study were:

1. To investigate whether broken home affects adolescents‘ sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

2. To establish the effect of intact home on out of school adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

3. To investigate the combined effect of broken home and intact home on

adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

1.4 Research Questions
1. Does broken home affects adolescents‘ sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours?

2. What is the effect of intact home on out of school adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours?

3. What is the combined effect of broken home and intact home on adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours?

4. broken home intact home

1.5 Hypotheses
The hypotheses of the study were:

1. There is significant effect of broken home on adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

2. There is significant effect of intact home on adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

3. There is a significant combined effect of broken home and intact home on adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

1.6 Scope of the Study
Geographical scope: This study was carried out in Yaba LGA, Lagos State. It is one of the five LGAs that make up Lagos State, Some of the schools are boarding, while others are day schools. Others are mixed and others are single gender schools. However, although Yaba LGA has access to education through government programs such as universal secondary education (USE), aimed at providing secondary school education for all and in every parish, most of the education facilities are owned and run by private individuals, with government providing the supervisory role through ministry of education and sports (Dennis Obbo,2014).

Content Scope: The study focused on whether broken home affects adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours, the effects of intact home on out of school adolescents sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours and investigated the combined effect of broken home and intact home on adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

Time Scope: Adolescents of senor four to six of 2016 in Yaba LGA, Lagos State participated in the study. The study covered the period 1986-2018.

1.7 Significance of study
The findings from this study are intended to create awareness among parents about the extent to which broken home and intact home influence adolescents‘ sexual behavior. Gaps in the parental influence may also be identified.

Results may provide information to parents, counselors, advocacy groups, and policy makers about the magnitude of adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours. This may help to lay strategies on how to introduce both prevention and intervention measures against this behavior, which may help guide on how parents may positively influence their adolescents and thus cumber their involvement in sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours.

This study may help to create awareness among parents on how they are perceived, which may motivate them to get actively involved in the issues to do with children‘s sexual behavior. This may also lead to a closer relationship between parents and children, as well as helping the children avoid sexual risky behavior.

From the findings, researchers may realize that adolescent sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours is still an area that needs continuous research because times keep changing. Other factors that influence behavior, such as the media, peer pressure, culture, and family values change, too. Findings may help the academicians enrich their knowledge about how broken home and intact home are related to out of school adolescents‘ sexual reproductive health knowledge and behaviours. This knowledge may be used in their various professions.

For more Educational Psychology & Counseling Projects Click here
===================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 52 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
===================================================================

Share:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts