EFFECT OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN OBIO AKPO LGA RIVERS STATE USING CARING THINKING

ABSTRACT
Amongst the predictors of pupils’ academic performance is the degree of comfortability and conduciveness of school environment. The study examined the impact of school environment on pupils’ academic performance of primary school pupils in Obio Akpo Local Government Area of Rivers State. The survey design in collaboration with the purposive sampling technique and simple random sampling technique was used to select 180 primary school pupils from four selected primary schools in the study area. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire, which was administered to the respondents. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistics technique and the analysis of variance. The results revealed that physical school environment (p<0.05); school location (p<0.05) and school facilities (p<0.05) significantly influenced the academic performance of the selected pupils. Also, school environment (p<0.05), in its entirety significantly impacted on the self-esteem of the pupils. Based on these findings, the study recommends that modern and functional educational facilities such as libraries, laboratories, ICT centers, health centers, sport centers, toiletries and other instructional materials should be provided and made accessible to the pupils and teachers should be friendly and courteous towards their pupils so that they- the pupils, can consult them whenever they have any disturbing issue(s).

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Education is very essential to all countries of the world both developed and developing. Education is the process or art of imparting knowledge, skills, facts, judgment and either formally or informally. It is the channel through which human, physical, social, emotional and intellectual abilities are developed. Education to Kneller (2000) is the process by which individuals go through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions of learning for transmission of values and knowledge. Education in the assertion of the 1st black president of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, is the most potent weapon to fight poverty, ignorance and provoke positive reforms in the world. Quality education allows for acquisition of skills, technology, progress and creates an avenue for the exploration of human resources towards the attainment of economic development.

School, colleges and universities -have no worth without pupil. Pupils are most essential asset for any educational institute. The social and economic development of the country is directly linked with pupil academic performance. The pupils’ performance (academic achievement) plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leader and manpower for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development (Ali et.al, 2009). Pupil academic performance measurement has received considerable attention in previous research, it is challenging aspects of academic literature, and science pupil performance are affected due to social, psychological, economic, environmental and personal factors. These factors strongly influence the pupil performance, but these factors vary from person to person and country to country.

Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect pupil behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among pupil. Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on pupils’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by pupils including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic achievement of pupils.

Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with pupil-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with pupil health problems, pupil behavior, and pupil achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001; Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research is to examine the aforementioned areas of school environment as it affects pupils’ performance in Nigerian schools.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
A pupil faces a lot of problem in the course of his educational pursuit. These problems are multifaceted. The research is concerned with the effect of the school environment with special reference to pupil’s academic attainment and possible solution to the problem. The alarming poor performance in examination is definitely of great concern to the researcher who sees the study as inevitable.

It is noted that pupils’ performance at primary school level at private and public schools differs due to environmental constraints.

The high levels of pupils’ academic achievement may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the impact of school environment on pupils’ academic achievement in primary school in Obio Akpo Local government area of Rivers State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of the study:

1. ascertain the impact of small class size on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers Stata.

2. determine the impact of classroom building on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State.

3. determine the impact of adequate class furniture on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State.

4. ascertain the impact of the availability of physical education facilities and equipment on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State.

1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are raised with regard to this research:

1. what is the impact of small class size on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State?

2. what is the impact of classroom building on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State?

3. what is the impact of the provision of adequate class furniture on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State?

4. what is the impact of the availability of physical education facilities and equipment on the performance of pupils and self-esteem in primary schools in Rivers State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following are the research hypotheses:

1. there is no significant difference in the performances of pupils taught in a small class size and those in a large class size in Rivers State.

2. there is no significant difference in the performances of pupils taught using instructional resources and those taught without instructional resources in Rivers State.

1.6 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study would provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help pupils in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing pupils’ educational outcomes in school. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in computer science in Primary schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts.

In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic achievement of pupil in primary school.

Also, this work would serve as a stepping stone to other researchers, who are looking for better ways to solve the problem of school environment and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school in business study, a case study of selected Primary schools in Obio Akpo Local Government Area of Rivers State.

1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this work is to cover four selected schools under Obio Akpo Local Government Area.

The subjects of this study are junior school.

It is hoped that the findings made in these areas would serve as a useful pointer to what occurs in other areas of the state and in other part of the federation knowing fully well that pupils encounter different environmental constraint.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 51 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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