DETERMINATION OF DOMESTIC WATER DEMAND AND SUPPLY

ABSTRACT
Water is one of the basic human need and imperative for sustaining quality of life on earth.

However, its unbalance and unmanaged used make it scarce. This study analyzes the Domestic Water Demand and Supply in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. Focuses on the analysis of the sources of water resource in Ilorin, assessing factors affecting water demand and supply and their relationship. The methodology involve the use of questionnaires and interview method to gather necessary information from the state water Board and result gathered from the study area. The study was carried out through the use of structured questionnaire which was administered. Two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires were filled correctly. On the part of water Board questionnaire were correctly filled and returned. Random sampling was employed. The questionnaires were used to solicit information from a sample of respondents. The analytic techniques involve both the descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution, sample percentage and correlation analysis. Therefore it was deduced from the analysis that consumption and supply are 124.0 liters and 190.2 liters respectively per person per day. The conclusion from the result of correlation coefficient (1.9996) that there exists very high positive linear relationship between the household water demand and water supplied by the kwara State Water Board. The women and children are particularly vulnerable when water is short supply. Bursting of pipe, poor management, topography of an area, water wastage coupled with bias in water supply have been some of the factors influencing water supply. The study recommends that there should be concerted effort by both water users 9demand) and supplier to control water wastage so as to achieve the goal.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Water is essential to life and its supply, consumption and spatial distribution are closely associated with economic growth and the development of society. Apart from air, water is indispensable to life it is a foundation for human prosperity because adequate and high quality water supplies provide a basis for the growth and development of human social, economic and culture of people (Ward, 1975, Young, 2006). The importance of water to man cannot be overemphasized, it holds the most important benefit to man‟s sustenance beside shelter, food and clothing (Ajadi, 1996) According to Amin and Mahmud, (2011) it is recognized all over the world that water is a vital resource to human existence and that is a major factor in commanding the progress of civilization.

Water is essential in sustaining quality of life on earth, the sustainability of socially sensitive goods such as water depends on effective and efficient use of available water resources. Amin and Mahmud, (2011) also reported that the extensive use of water has increased globally and the efficacy of supply side measure is questionable owing to drastic increase in population, technological advancement and economic growth; the demand for water supplies is continuously increasing, numerous researchers have emphasized on water demand management rather than the supply side management. The water demand study in relation to water supply enables us to estimate how much the increase in demand for water supplies.

Water demand is the quantity that the treatment plant produce in order to meet all water needs in the community. Water demand includes water delivered to the system to meet the need of consumers, water supply for fire fighting and system flushing. On the other hand water supply refers to system for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage and distribution of water Admassu M. (1996).

The term “domestic water demand” according to Amin (2007), is usually taken to mean the amount of water required for various domestic uses. Domestic water use varies according to the living standards of the consumers in urban and rural areas. The use of water for domestic purpose may be subsidized in drinking, food preparation and cooking washing cloths and utensils, house cleaning and polishing vegetable gardening, livestock watering and other uses.

According to Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999), access to safe and adequate potable water supply is a basic human right. They reported that domestic water supply and demand is not uniform in different parts of Ilorin metropolis and varies significantly base on locations, climate change, house characteristics and socio-economic variables. Indeed, residential water demand is often found to be a positive function of the number of individuals in the family, the size of the house, the nature of water – using appliances and household income. Also they reported that domestic water demand is increasing rapidly while the options for new development of water resources are limited in Ilorin municipal, the infrastructure is in poor shape, underfunding by the government and low revenue collection over the decades has weakened the capacity of government to find, build and maintain infrastructure. According to WHO/UNICEF (2000) 1.1 billion people lack access to improved water supply. In the same vein, the data released by the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics in 2006 confirmed that only 51.4% of Nigerian have access to safe water with only 43.4% having access to all year round supply.

According to Fabiyi and Ahmed (2011), one of the most important problems of urbanization across the world is that of water supply, because of its role in natural health and economic development. They reported that an important aspect of urban water supply is the understanding of household water demand at the level of household is complex phenomenon which varies on the basis of socio-economic factors.

The study of water supply and demand in Nigeria becomes imperative in various respects. According to Fabiyi and Ahmed (2011), it was confirmed that in 1990, 71.1 million Nigerians lived in urban areas, in 1995 it increased to 96.1 million, by 2003 this percentage had gone to 136 million people, indicating a serious stress in water supply in Nigerian cities. Also, a report by Central Bank of Nigeria CBN (2004) showed that 41% and 51% of Nigerians population are children and female respectively suggesting that relatively high percentage of Nigerians are vulnerable to water borne diseases. According to Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999) Ilorin central is a typical traditional city with mixtures of traditional rural and industrial function where water supply is erratic, inefficient, rotational and unreliable, they reported that four additional public agencies are also into water supply in the state apart from Agba and Asa Dam. UNICEF having 73 boreholes in the area, EUMBP with 22 boreholes, KWAADP with 40 boreholes and DFFRI with about 404 shallow and deep wells in the traditional part of the city.

In addition, they reported that pipe borne water runs in few days of the week and many of the inhabitants have to walk great distances before they get to the nearest water points in Ilorin. According to Oyebode (1991), 75% of the respondents walked 400 – 800 meters from their residence to the nearest water points. Analysis of numbers of days with running taps revealed that 60.9% of the respondents have water twice a week, 11% three times a week, while only 0.9% have water on daily basis. As reported by Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1991), analysis of the amount of water supplied and amount demanded suggested that Ilorin experienced water deficit as much as over 1,000,000 liters per capital day per annum. According to Sule (2000) about half of the population of the Ilor in metropolis lack access to safe and portable water supply. On the contrary, water supply by delivery agent and its contamination level due to poor sanitation is always disastrous in terms of ill health, thereby undermining their productive time which in the long run could lead to reduction in income and increase in disease out break and increase in poverty.

According to Annad (2007), competition for water has resulted in the collapse of water base ecological systems hence decline river flows and large scale ground water depletion. This is leading to an increased potential for conflict within and between countries with the rural populations being the most affected. Also reported that even though the water crisis is observed as a general problem for the rural population, women bare the greatest burden because of their social gendered roles, which involve looking for and collecting water for households. Barkingham (2000), equally affirmed that water demand and allocation in the household has got a direct link with accessibility of the water supply sources. This is determined by the distance travelled to collect water. According to the WHO (2003) standards areas with access to water of more than 1000m/more than 30min uses of the total collection time pose a great threat to human health (WHO, 2003) also reported that in Amona and Rakai district of Uganda, most of the people still do not have easy access to water. This has got a negative impact on the status of women and children who are responsible of collecting water. This is because they always have to travel a distance of more than 1km to collect water and to carry it on their heads.

The situation in some parts of the study area is also pathetic that both old and young men and women spend most of their time and resources in search for water. The extent to which this shortage undermine the productive time and income generating efforts of people in Ilorin metropolis demands for a scientific study, therefore this study seeks to analyze the demand and supply of domestic water in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Inspite of the effort made by the government of Kwara State to expand dams in the state and additional boreholes by public agencies into the water supply there is still inadequate supply of water in Ilorin metropolis. This indicates that water issue in the metropolis deserves serious policy and research attentions.

A number of studies have been carried out on water supply, demand shortage and scarcity. Richard and Arthur (1984) used a multiple regression model to study the factors which influence water consumption in Oklahoma city and Tulsa. The result indicate that average price and per capita income were predictive variables for Oklahoma city‟s water demand, while only per capita income was found to be a predictor for consumption in Tulsa. Ajadi (1996) carried out a research on availability of water and consumption pattern in Ilorin metropolis with aid of questionnaire and interview method to find out that increased in urbanization, rapid growth of population coupled with ineffective management of water resources have been leading to water crisis. Mimi and Smith (2000) and Khadam (1984) employed this approach in water demand studies for Ramallah and Khartoum respectively. Both studies also found price and size of household significant. Also a study of water consumption patterns in El paso as an economic development strategy for the sustainable use of water. It was reported that regional growth in the El paso / lascrues / juraes, now exceeding two million people and growing at an estimated 2.5% per year is highly dependent on an adequate supply of drinking water.

Adedayo and Ifabiyi (1999) examined the distribution of water and the role of public agencies in Ilorin, Kwara State. Using descriptive statistics, they found out that unevenness in the distribution of water is as a result of political interference in the activities of the agencies, the localities of highly placed government officer are favoured to the neglect of others.

Ijaya (2000) investigated the impact of water shortage and depletion on the productive time of women in Ilorin. The author made use of structured questionnaire, informal interview and participant observation. The result of the study revealed the shortages to inadequate supply of water is due to inefficiency by delivery agent and contamination of water due to poor sanitation. Nsofor (2000) examined the effect of attitude and social-economic characteristics on water based outdoor recreation participation in Benin City using descriptive statistic data. He found out that the use of water base recreation activities is significantly affected by attitude and socio-economic characteristic of users. Sule and Okeola (2002) assessed the performance of a regional water supply management in Ilorin, Kwara State. Using both the descriptive and inferential statistics such a single percentage and correlation analysis. The result of the study revealed that increasing urbanization population and ineffective management of water resources have lead to water crisis.

Kirby (2004), carried out analysis on water scarcity, he revealed that water scarcity is as a result of growth and simultaneous increase in urbanization of the global population threatens to exhaust existing fresh water and the increased in consumer‟s demand for amenities such as home dish water and swimming pools. It is a known fact therefore, that the study of demand and supply for domestic water has turned into a global phenomenon and indeed a critical policy issue receiving some recognition not only from developed nation but by authorities of developing countries.

Fleming (2004) discussed various methods of projecting water demands using historical water demand data and population. Annual water demand and population data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained and reviewed. The demand analysis performed was used to determine a projected water demand for the years 2025 and 2055 based on the methods used by Vanasse Hangen Bruslin Inc. (VHB) in the 1997 demand analysis. The methodology utilized by VHB included four district approaches. The first approach looks at historic trends in raw water volumes and projects these trends into the future. The other three approaches break down total demand into a series of district components and project demand for each component in to the future using each of these methods, the demand projection for both 2055 and 2025 the gross projected demand for 2055 is 19.59 million gallon per day and for 2025 is 15.26.

Mylopoulos and Theodossion (2004) applied a cubic functional form of an econometric model to study a residential water demand which allows the use of different price elasticity for different levels of water demand. The data used for the econometric analysis were obtained through a survey of consumers in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, panel estimation methods were then employed to estimate model parameters. The results showed that a cubic form of the demand equation can provide appropriate estimates of price elasticities for different “consumption groups” of residential customers. According to the study conducted by Ahmed and Smith (1987) in Bangladesh, water consumption per person per day for drinking, kitchen (cooking and utensil washing), bathing (bathing and washing cloths), sanitary and other purposes were 2litre, 9litre, 20litre and 8litre respectively. Solley (2000) found out in his study that structural changes affected supply and demand for domestic water due to federal laws controlling water pollution, technological changes in processes that use water as an input (including cooling towers and a movement away from once through cooling) and increase recycling of water. The agricultural sector improved the delivery of water for irrigation and this sector lessened its reliance on ground water because of the increased costs of pumped water.

Schleich and Hillenbrand (2007) studied the impact of economic, environmental and social determinants for the average per capita demand for water and sewage in about 600 water supply areas in Germany using econometric analyzes prices, income, household size, the effects of population age, the share of wells and rainfall and temperature during the summer months on water demand. The result suggests that the response of residential water demand in Germany is rather inelastic. Also found out that household size, the share of wells and summer rainfall have a negative impact on water demand. Mulwafu (2002) examines the status of water demand management in Malawi in genta and in the Lake Chilva catchment in particular. Finding indicate that, while water demand management is highly advocated in the urban and peri-urban areas and very few aspects of water demand management practiced in the rural areas.

In the light of this, the experience in the study area is that the existence of long queues indicated that water demand is inadequate in relation to water supplied. Meanwhile there is need for increase in water supply to fill the gap.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this work is with a view to providing information to urban water managers for effective spatial planning of water infrastructure. The specific objectives are to;

i) analyse sources of water for domestic use.

ii) assess factors affecting water demand and supply iii) examine the relationship between domestic water demand and supply

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focus on demand and supply for domestic water in Ilorin metropolis Kwara State.

The Areas of the study covers Gambari, Okelele, Pakata, Okekere, Ajikobi, Akerebiata, Adewole, Zango, Oja-oba and Baboko areas. The scope of the study in terms of content covers time and cost of water and the expenditure to get clean water, the increased in demand for domestic water and water shortage. The areas was chosen because problems of water shortage is more pronounced in the areas.

1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Water is one of those resources that people take for granted until there is shortage of it or it becomes unsuitable for domestic uses. Water is a limited resource and there is more demand for it owing to increase in population in Ilorin central. For instance, Ilorin and its environs are extending at alarming rate but, instead of supply and distribution of domestic water to improve, water problems is worsening day by day and effort made by the government to expand Asa dam and Agba Dam in Kwara state capital yielded no positive result. The problems of busted and rusted pipes are hindrance to the distribution to places. This is why there is need for close monitoring and examination of demand and supply for domestic water for the purpose of spatial planning.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 60 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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