THE INFLUENCE OF TRADE APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN EDO STATE - A CASE STUDY OF EKOSODIN COMMUNITY

ABSTRACT
Primarily, this research work focused on the identification of the indigenous apprenticeship trades that exist in Ekosodin. Methods of Trade Apprenticeship Program system as well as its consequences on poverty reduction were also investigated. Three research questions and one hypotheses were formulated. A proportionate stratified sampling technique was adopted to select trainees for the study. Questionnaire items were administered to 35 tailors. The researcher made use of frequency distribution, mean and chi-square statistics for the data analysis. The study revealed that Trade Apprenticeship Program existed in tailoring, welding, carpentry, blacksmithing, carving, fishing, poultry, gardening, cookery, weaving and dyeing, leather works, cane crafts, mat carpet and native medicine. Various methods of indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program in use in Ekosodin includes oral instruction, demonstration, observation, try out by apprentices, occupational participation and project method. A good proportion of trainees had formal or no formal education; majority of tailors received formal education at below primary six level. Graduates of indigenous apprenticeship complement the technical work force require in the private sector. The chi-square results of the study revealed no significant difference at p > 0.05 in the opinion of respondents regarding the consequences of indigenous apprenticeship on poverty reduction in Ekosodin, Edo State, Nigeria. The study concludes that indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program will help youths in developing interests and saleable skills, which they can utilize in productive activities for their benefits as well as for their parents and communities. The study therefore recommends that the trades which are predominant in Ekosodin, Edo State should be adequately developed and revitalized

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
• Background to the Study
Apprenticeship as explained by (Ezeji and Nkajimeje, 1986) is an arrangement whereby an infant or an adult, male or female bonds himself or herself to serve and learn within a definite time from a master who undertakes to teach his trade or calling to an apprentice. Apprenticeship is a form of vocational training that has formal relationship between the Stylist (trainer) and apprentice (trainee) through which the mutual obligations and duties of each are established by written or oral agreement. The term "apprenticeship" is associated with a contract for the services to be rendered. The service is a form of instruction on the part of the master and learning through working on the part of the learner or apprentice.

The evolution of indigenous apprenticeship ushered in an era of breakthrough in man's attempt to originate a more systematic means of livelihood. However, there was a steady decline in this system following the European industrial revolution. The indigenous apprenticeship system lost its important characteristic, which is personal guidance and instruction by the Stylist. This change is as a result of the increase in demand for manufactured dresses, which could be met by means of large scale production using machine operators who did not need long periods of apprenticeship to learn how to operate machines.

In Edo State the system of indigenous apprenticeship is to a large extent still governed by the bilateral agreement between the Stylist and the apprentice's parent or relation, or even the apprentice himself, depending on the age. Children of at least 10 years of age and even below are espoused to fashion designing, sometimes for an unspecified period of time for Trade Apprenticeship Program.

Poverty is a global phenomenon, which affects continents, nations and peoples differently. It afflicts people in various depths and levels, at different times and phases of existence (Oyeranti, 2005). The most commonly way to measure poverty is based on income or consumption line. A person is considered poor if his or her consumption level falls below 1USD per day, a level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is called the poverty line The (World Bank, 2002). Poverty in rural areas is seen to be at a higher level and more recognized. In most countries including Nigeria there is urban poverty. Towns and villages around the cities are characterized by high levels of poverty. In the city of Nairobi, people sleep in kiosks, roadsides, lorry stations, petrol stations, and many other unsecured places. The level of slums in the cities really indicates that there is urban poverty. Migration from the villages to the cities in search of jobs has caused congestion in the cities. Many people in the cities live on less than one or two dollars a day because they do not have jobs. Public places of convenience are congested. Even though it is clear that urban dwellers have advantage as compared to their counterparts in the rural settings, it is also obvious that some rural dwellers are better off than their counterparts in the cities.

Poverty therefore is not only a rural phenomenon but also observable in the urban settings in most developing countries, including Nigeria, opportunities for wage employment in the formal sector of the economy are extremely limited, and the vast majority of the poor rely on self-employment for their livelihood. Better access to financial services enables the poor to establish and expand micro-enterprises and thereby improve their income levels and create employment. Even in middle income countries such as Botswana and Egypt, where opportunities for wage employment are greater, many poor households rely on self-employment in micro-enterprises for their livelihood (Hashemi, 1997). Narayan et al (2000) systematically defined poverty when he said that “don’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside my house. Look at the house and count the number of holes. Look at my utensils and the clothes that I am wearing. Look at everything and write what you see. What you see is poverty”. People living in extreme poverty often lack opportunities to have their basic needs met, meaning access to food, clean water, clothes and decent shelter. Most lack education and are vulnerable to diseases (Lindvert, 2006).

Interest is essential for learning and training in apprenticeship. It is a motivating factor that enkindles one's potentialities and is based on fundamental emotions and desire. It has always been described as one of the major factors that influence individuals in choice of career (Ochiagha, 1991). Interest promotes the desire of trainee to learn a skill. Do a job well and to take pride in the work. People differ fundamentally in their interest and the values they attach to things. These differences are of great importance in vocational guidance. They relate to occupational choice, effort, and satisfaction. One person likes to work with ideas, another with people, and still another with things. There is a lot of glib talk in guidance and education about helping youths to discover their interests. Interests are acquired or developed by participation in activities which promote success and personal satisfaction. If youths are to develop interests in occupations and an appreciation of the importance and worth-whileness of work, they must be provided early with an opportunity to participate in a meaningful way in work activities.

The consequences of these indigenous apprenticeship programmes seem to have caused poor enrolment into Technical schools and Technical Education Departments of the State Polytechnics. The question that readily comes to mind, is, 'what future does this trend hold for technical education in Edo State?' This is where other forms of Trade Apprenticeship Program are supposed to take place to meet the demands of the State in terms of middle manpower requirements in technical fields, as well as to meet the growing needs of the introductory technology teachers in secondary schools of Edo State.

• Statement of the Problem
Folayan (1990), states that "Fashion designer that was not created, designed and maintained by the people is not the peoples' fashion designer". If this stylist would not be regarded as the peoples' fashion designer, the need to look inwards towards indigenous fashion designing of the people is necessary; the need arises therefore to identify the various fashions available in indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program system in Edo State.

Since the creation of Edo State, the State government has been engaging in an effort to increase practice in fashion designing/tailoring, developing youths' interests in practical education and utilizing the available fashion designing practice for the benefit of the people of the State. These efforts appear not to have yielded the expected outcome. It can be observed that technical education programmes in Edo State schools are usually developed but most often, they have not been well co-ordinated or its implementation seen not related to overall goal. The need to identify the various methods adopted in indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program becomes obvious since most people comparatively go in for Trade Apprenticeship Program than for formal technical education. In Edo State, most apprentices are not educated and are stereotyped, steeped in tradition and adhere to old age methods of training. They often grope into Trade Apprenticeship Program with marginal knowledge of the different methods of training while seeking for work (Calaway, 1962). Besides, indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program among local people has been identified as being based on crude cultural practices, devoid of modern methods of educational practices. Ochiagha (1995) explains that, the method of acquiring skills and technical know-how in apprenticeship is denoted by casual and unsystematic learning of skills by the trainee as they watch and imitate experienced masters. The people have continued with traditional methods passed onto them thereby producing only fashion stylist that cannot face the pressure of modern technology.

The indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program was prevalent in Edo state before the establishment of formal institutions; it is also traced to our indigenous form of education where, the trainees acquire skills under the tutelage of stylist. Those trained under this system constituted the major work force in our labour market today. The training of these apprentices in this system is mainly focused on skill training with marginal emphasis on cognitive capability.

Therefore, the trainees may lack ability to initiate and innovate. Edo State government has made several efforts to promote and increase the production of technical teachers, yet the production level is relatively low. It becomes necessary to find out the characteristics of trainers and trainees, and the factors that influence decisions to enroll as an apprentice.

New fashion tools associated with improved training methods, have emerged. In modern times, with greater sophistication, more is expected from both the trainee and the trainer who are presently operating the crude system of technical training. Therefore, a gap can be identified in the development of Technical Education in Edo State. The need, therefore, arises to appraise the status of the indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program and its consequences on poverty reduction in Edo State.

• Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to examine the influence of Trade Apprenticeship Program on Poverty Reduction. Other specific objectives are:

• To examine the methods of indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program that was carried out in Edo State

• To identify the factors that influence the decision to enroll as an apprentice

• To identify the influence of Trade Apprenticeship Program on Poverty Reduction.

• Research Questions
• What are the methods of indigenous Trade Apprenticeship Program that was carried out in Edo State?

• What are the factors that influence the decision to enroll as an apprentice?

• What is the influence of Trade Apprenticeship Program on Poverty Reduction?

• Statement of the Hypothesis
HO1: There is no significant relationship between Trade Apprenticeship Program and Poverty Reduction

HA1: There is significant relationship between Trade Apprenticeship Program and Poverty Reduction.

• Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be useful to the various governments, Federal, State and Local, the apprentices and trainers, vocational educators, Nigerian youths and their parents. In an effort to increase our technical know-how and to check the prevailing shortage of technical education experts, the various governments Federal, State, and Local have embarked on various technical education programmes such as the National Open Apprenticeship Scheme (NOAS). The findings of this study will provide useful information that can aid planning and successful execution of such a programme.

The study will provide the required information needed by trainees on the choice of apprenticeship areas based on their qualifications, interests and aptitudes. It will help apprentices confirm their career choices and encourage them during the training to be more active in learning, since the choice was made on their abilities and interest. The findings of the study will benefit formal technical educators in various ways. Apart from providing information on how to harness the indigenous apprenticeship as a way of training, it will furnish them with the methods, which they can successfully, adopt while teaching skills to students in formal technical education setting.

The findings of this study will provide information that will assist the trainers in planning apprenticeship programmes and in improving the methods of training. The findings of this study will be useful to Edo State government in particular. Various trades of Trade Apprenticeship Program in the State will be identified. This could aid developmental programmes especially now that the government is emphasizing poverty alleviation/eradication.

This study will provide parents and guardians information on apprenticeship programme and the necessary guidelines which will enable them chose apprenticeship trades, if they will not enroll in technical schools for formal technical education. Lastly, study and practice in technology could be strengthened through an integration of the old and new knowledge acquired through apprenticeship on the bases that they could be brought into a single entity.

• Justification of the Study
The outcome of this study will be a little guide for the artisans on how to overcome the influence of Trade Apprenticeship Program on Poverty Reduction.

The research will also serve as a source base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field in future. The study therefore will extend the frontiers of the existing literature by emphasizing the influence of Trade Apprenticeship Program on Poverty Reduction in Nigeria.

• Scope of the Study
This study on the influence of Trade Apprenticeship Program on Poverty Reduction will cover how the apprenticeship programme is organized and managed and its effect on Poverty Reduction.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 48 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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