THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN NATION BUILDING: A CASE STUDY OF ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCILS JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN FCT

ABSTRACT
This research work was conducted to evaluate the impact of Social Studies education on Nation Building among junior secondary school Students in Abuja Municipal Council. The descriptive survey research design was used in carrying out the study hence it required the collection of data from a large number of respondents within the limited time scheduled for the completion of the project, and in doing this, relevant research questions were asked and hypotheses were formulated to test them in order to show the findings of the study. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher and validated by the supervisor which was then administered to the respondents for the generation of data. A total of 400 respondents comprising 200 boys and 200 girls were selected through simple random sampling method to generate the sample size. The sample size was considered adequate and representative because all the students were of similar age, although they were drawn from different schools. The analysis of the data collected from respondents was carried out with the use of percentage and frequency distribution tables, while the hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using chi- square statistical tools to establish their correctness or otherwise. The findings made from the study revealed that; Social Studies education is an effective tool for the achievement of Nation Building among junior secondary school Students in Abuja Municipal Council; Social Studies education imparts knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills among junior secondary school Students in Abuja Municipal Council; teaching methods affect students’ comprehension of subject- matter being taught; Social Studies education classroom practices and activities, especially teacher to students and student to student relationships improves general relations among junior secondary school Students in Abuja Municipal Council. It was therefore recommended among other things, that the concepts of culture, religion, tolerance, inter-tribal marriage and cooperation, unity, patriotism and nationalism should be well taught to students at junior secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
• Background to the Study
By introducing Social Studies Education in the Nigerian school system, without doubts, the vision of the Nigerian government was to make the Nigerian child to have a holistic interaction with its environment. However, with the happenings in the contemporary Nigeria, specifically from the past twenty years of our present republic as a nation, it is as though the country is sitting on a gun-powder that can detonate at any time. The question on the lips of every Nigerian is what is our educational system especially those courses as Social Studies and the likes, that have a tailored curriculum to cater for Nation Building, doing to foster unity in our schools?

There is a well-known saying that what is learnt at a tender age is hardly forgotten even at adulthood. The dictum that Nation Building occupies a prominent position in the quest to build a united, strong, virile and prosperous Nigeria can never be overemphasized.

Social Studies as a holistic approach to curriculum innovation, makes it possible for vital issues such as cultural tolerance and national unity to be accommodated. A survey through the Social Studies curriculum from primary to tertiary level clearly indicates the commitment of the subject in installing attitudes and values necessary for national unity and integration in Nigeria (NTI/STUP, 2007).

Social Studies is not Geography, neither is it History nor Government nor Economics, nor is it an amalgamation of social sciences. No. Rather Social Studies is an area of the curriculum designed specifically for the study of man and how man’s problems are solved. Efforts of some educators from Ohio University who sought to introduce the teaching of Social Studies into Teacher’s Colleges in the former Western Region of Nigeria in 1958 served as a catalyst for the introduction of Social Studies into the school curriculum immediately after independence (Ezegbe,1988).

Notwithstanding the efforts made at this time, Social Studies dream as held by these educators from Ohio University was not realized. Its entry into the curriculum at that time was short-lived because there were no schools in which the subject could be taught but it was re-introduced in 1963 to enable learners to learn about themselves (Ezegbe,1988).

Social Studies deals with man and his environment, how man discovers himself and how he can be useful both to himself, to the community and to the society at large, are questions that engage Social Studies thinkers. The constant search of how man can fit into the society by utilizing the necessary attitudes, values and skills are at the root of Social Studies objective. This in fact, explains why Social Studies is simply seen as “the way of life” of the people. Its study focuses on the use of critical and reflective thinking to solve problems of man’s survival in his environment, to which peace, unity and Nation Building are critical catalysts. Hence these catalysts are sine qua non to development as no meaningful progress can be achieved in an atmosphere marred by disunity.

Nigeria is a pluralistic entity comprising large cultural groups and different ideological divides with tribalism constantly challenging every spirited effort any successive government makes towards Nation Building. Some of the programmes which the government has introduced with the aim of achieving integration in Nigeria include, among many others, the National Youths Service Corps (NYSC) in 1973, and the Declaration of Ethical Revolution in 1982 to mention but a few. All these efforts were geared towards achieving integration within the country, but despite these laudable programmes provided by the government to achieve unity in Nigeria, the divide however, remains so sharp across the country that we can observe it politically, culturally, economically, linguistically and religiously, constantly resulting to conflicts, breach of national peace and putting so much pressure on government and security agencies as well as creating some kind of developmental setbacks.

According to Anegbu, (n.d) in People of Nigeria; “Nigerian census 2006 showed that over five hundred ethnicities exist in Nigeria but there are three major tribes which are Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. The Hausa are the biggest tribe in Nigeria; they inhabit about ten states out of the 36 states of the federation, and are predominantly Muslims but a few of them practice traditional religion. The Yoruba account for the second biggest tribe and are predominantly Christians but a large number of them are Muslims, a few practice traditional religions. The Igbo are the third largest tribe. They are largely Christians, a few practice traditional religions. The diversities however, the 2006 Nigerian Census, put the population of Nigeria to about One Hundred and Forty Million (140,000,000) people living together and interacting

with one another”.Anegbu (n,d). Retrieved August 19, 2017 from http://www.total-facts-


Quite often therefore, misunderstandings do occur, resulting to ethnic clashes, religious disputes and killings. Recent examples of such problems are the cases of the Boko-Haram and the threats from the Northern Youths Forum to the Igbo communities living in the northern parts of the country, the hate speeches coming from every region of the country, the agitation for a separate state of Biafra and the activities of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) embodied by their leader, Nnandi Kalu to mention but a few. These social unrests are parts of the indices that indicate the limit of the status of Social Studies Education in our schools and colleges, and they have generated a lot of controversies and series of concerns coming from a cross section of the larger society over the failure or inability of subjects taught in our schools to foster unity among children.

Evaluation of Social Studies curriculum at the junior secondary school level shows that it focuses attention in the area of critical thinking and reflective enquiry; for example, a responsible citizen should be able to distinguish between facts and rumours or propaganda. Therefore, hence education in Nigeria is regarded as the vehicle by which Nigeria hopes to make its teeming youths become good citizens, the effective teaching of Social Studies in the junior secondary schools in Nigeria will, in no small measure, enhance Nation Building among students in junior secondary schools and as well expose them to active role participation in their various communities. The study will hinge on a determination of the extent to which the teaching of Social Studies curriculum has fostered Nation Building among Junior Secondary School Students in Abuja Municipal Council .There is the need for an urgent study to determine ways for emphasizing national unity and integration through school curricular. The study will examine the impact of Social Studies Education on Nation Building among Junior Secondary School Students in Abuja Municipal Council against the above backdrops. It will proffer ways for which the much needed Nation Building will be achieved in our secondary schools through the teaching of Social Studies.

• Statement of the Problem
No nation will ever move forward where there are crises and clashes among the people, more so, when youths as future leaders of society are manipulated and made to become vehicles by which ills are perpetrated by the selfish and zealous politicians who take advantage over the ignorance of these young men and women to fan embers of discord in the society. Nigeria is a large and pluralistic nation. Its ethnicities are politically, religiously, linguistically, and culturally diverse, and it is not preternatural for conflict of interest to arise intermittently in the course of social relations among the people due to these pluralisms, but because the political classes in their greed, have created a system where the youths now live in an enterprise of free-market culture of ethnicism and nepotism, where the license of tribalism rules over nationalism. As can be imagined, the effect of this is the erosion of consciousness of shared values and nationalism in the subconscious minds of Nigerians - a culture that is totally antithesis to Nation Building and nation-building.

• Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of Social Studies Education in achieving Nation Building among junior secondary school Students in Abuja Municipal Council.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

• Examine the extent to which Social Studies Education is effective in the achievement of Nation Building among students

• Examine the extent to which Social Studies Education impart knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills to students.

• Evaluate the methods of teaching used by teachers to impart Social Studies contents on the students with a view to understanding if the students are being taught well or not.

• Investigate the effectiveness of Social Studies Education classroom practices and activities in the achievement of Nation Building among students.

• Evaluate students’ attitudes to one another having been exposed to such Social Studies concepts as cultural integration, inter-tribal cooperation, friendship, and conflict management, as well as social justice and self-development.

• Research Questions
The following research questions will provide guide for the study:

• Is Social Studies Education an effective tool for the achievement of Nation Building among students?

• Does Social Studies Education impart knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills to students?

• Does method of teaching affect students’ comprehension of the subject-matter being taught?

• Does Social Studies Education classroom practices and activities especially teacher to students, and student to student relationships, improve general relationship among students?

• Do students attitudes and general perception of one another change having been exposed to such concepts as cultural integration, inter-tribal marriages, cooperation, friendship, conflict management, as well as social justice and self-development?

• Research Hypotheses
• Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Social Studies Education and impartation of knowledge of Nation Building on students.

• Ho2: There is no significant relationship between Social Studies and impartation of patriotic spirit and democratic skills on students.

• Ho3: There is no significant relationship between Social Studies teaching methods and students’ understanding of the concepts of Social Studies.

• Ho4: There is no significant relationship between Social Studies classroom practices and activities and the building of cooperation and friendship among students

• Ho5: There is no change in students’ attitudes and general perception of one another after been exposed to Social Studies subject-matter.

• Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study will be delimited to the following variables; cultural integration, inter- tribal cooperation, friendship, conflict management, civic responsibilities and democratic skills, social justice, self-development, patriotism and nationalism, among others.

However, the research is centred on Impact of Social Studies Education on Nation Building among Junior Secondary School Students in Abuja Municipal Council. There is no research without limitations. The researcher experienced some difficulties in terms of availability of materials. Some of the materials that would have been used for the work, especially online materials, were inaccessible without payment. And also, a lot of the materials found in the libraries were outdated. Another difficulty experienced was that it took the researcher time to convince the respondents concerning the confidentiality of the questionnaire. Time constraint was another factor which the researcher encountered. As the time allotted for the research was so short, the researcher had to exhaust himself to finish in the nick of time.

• Significance of the Study
The study will be of immense help to Social Studies curriculum planners, designers and developers to know the impact of the subject curriculum on students in order to know areas that call for innovation or change, and also which teaching and learning materials should be made available to schools. The study will also serve the needs of teachers to determine the effectiveness of their teaching methods on students so as to know which methodology is most efficient in teaching Nation Building and unity. It will also be beneficial to the students and the general public who are interested in Nigerian national unity. Above all, this study will be immensely beneficial to the government in its efforts towards achieving Nation Building. It will serve as a blueprint of action for peace and unity, and a generalization on methods towards conflict resolution among the different ethnic groups.

• Operational Definition of Terms
• Peace: “A tranquility of order”. (Saint Augustine, A.D. 354 – 430). It also means having a feeling of security, calm and restfulness.

• Unity: A state of togetherness in mind and action.

• Nation Building: Coming together of people of different ethnic, tribal, social, political, religious and cultural backgrounds as one people with a common destiny.

• Conflict: Confrontation between individuals or groups. Conflict could also mean incompatible behaviour between two or more parties whose interest clash. Conflicts emanate from social relationship.

• Interaction: A process that defines social relationships between individuals or groups in their dealings with one another in the society.

• Ethnophaulism; Ethnic, racial or tribal slurs, including derisive nicknames.

• Prejudice; A negative attitude towards an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority.

• Discrimination: The denial of opportunities and equal right or treatment to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons.

• Nepotism: An act of favouritism done to friends, relatives and one’s kiths and kin against others, as a result of position one occupies.

• Tribalism: An arbitrary act of giving an undue advantage to one tribe against others because of reasons that one is a member of that tribe. Tribalism leads to prejudice.

• Sectionalism: An act of being loyal to one’s own region or section of the country rather than to the country as a whole.

• Nationalism: The act of being proud, loyal and patriotic to one’s own country.

Nationalism is the love of one’s country.

• Patriotism: This is the devotion or love one has for one’s nation.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 68 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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