STUDENTS ACCESS TO OUTLINE LEARNING AIDS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OBIO AKPOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABSTRACT
This study evaluated the effects of the use of outline learning aids in the teaching and learning of Basic Science in the Secondary schools of Rivers State. The study also examined the effect of outline learning aids and gender on students’ academic learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government. The performance of student taught with outline learning aids was compared with those of students taught with conventional teaching method (CTM). In order to carry out the study effectively, three research questions were asked and three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Many related literature were reviewed. The sample for the study consisted of 100 secondary school students. The researcher constructed the test items, which were then face validated by two Experts; one in Basic Science education and the other in measurement and evaluation after which it was administered to the students. Basic Science achievement test (COMSAT) was used to collect data for the study. The hypotheses were tested using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The data obtained were analyzed. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question. The hypotheses were tested with 0.05 level of significant. The analysis indicated that outline learning aids had significant effects on students’ cognitive learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government. Gender was a significant factor in the students’ overall cognitive learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government. Thus, it is recommended to use outline learning aids in the teaching and learning of Basic Science, state governments or their ministries of Education and professional associations should organize workshops, seminars and conferences to train the serving teachers on the use of outline learning aids technique. Finally, the limitation of study and suggestion for further studies were highlighted.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
We live in an age that is experiencing an ever-increasing use of Basic Sciences in diverse areas of human endeavor. Basic Sciences offer great assistance in decision-making, operations control, modeling, simulation, automated manufacturing etc. The history of development shows that so far, no industrialized nation has been able to make it without the use of Basic Sciences (Inyama, 2006).

In education, Basic Sciences are used in extremely versatile ways to aid the understanding of a wide variety of students. Basic Science as a feature in secondary school curricular has been faced with some challenges. Over the years, students` response to Basic Science especially in public schools has been poor and the reason seems to be that instructional materials specifically outline learning aids may not have been used or properly utilized during instruction and this is a source of worry to the researchers considering its possible effects on students’ achievement in the subject. This stated problem has often been attributed to the effects of the use of instructional materials, specifically, (audio-visuals).

Meaningful learning is most likely to occur when information is presented in a potentially meaningful way that the information conveyed is made or presented in a way that the majority of what was taught remains permanent in the learners memory. Webster’s Encyclopaedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language defines Outline learning aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc. used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”.

The term has also been defined by Dike, (2011) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.

According to (Anzaku Francis, 2011) “the term audio-visual material is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Thus according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the outline learning aids like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips.

Anzaku further stated that outline learning aids include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment or instructions, often referred to as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. The importance of outline learning aids in the teaching and learning processes cannot be over emphasized. Below are some of the roles of outline learning aids.

Basing learning in sense experience, extending experience,Encouraging participation, Stimulating interest,Individualizes instructions, Serves as a source of information, Making leaning permanent,

Basing learning in sense experience:
Stressing the importanceof outline learning aids, (Ngozi, Samuel,and Isaac, 2012) unanimously agreed that outline learning aids are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that outline learning aids are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.

Swank, (2011). stressing the effectiveness of visual materials in leaning, estimated that about 40% of our concepts are based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaneous organic sensation and 3% upon taste smell. With the above assertion, it becomes clearer why outline learning aids are important in the teaching and learning processes. This is because, they bring the different senses contributions together to get 100% clarity.

Extending Experience: Gopal, (2010) stressed that audiovisual materials help the teacher to overcome physicaldifficultiesof presenting subject matter. That is to say, with audiovisual materials, the barrier of communication and distance is broken. The culture and climatic conditions of other countries can be brought into the classroom with the aid of slides, films, filmstrips and projectors. This is important because, according to Dike, (1993)“once the phenomenon is visualized, the picture and knowledge becomes very clear and permanent”. Agreeing to this assertion, a 20th century Chinese philosopher stated that “one picture is worth a thousand words”.

Encouraging Participation; Natoli, (2011) once again added that “outline learning aids are rich opportunities for students to develop communication skill while actively engaged in solving meaningful problems”. In other words, students certainly like it more and learn better if they are engaged in important and appealing activities. For example, involving students in bulletin board display will enhance their choice of colour and aid their understanding of the concept in question or when they join the teacher in dramatization of an event or a process.

Stimulating Interest: According to Katherine (2009) “learning takes place effectively when the teacher sets out to provide learning situation in which a child will learn because of his natural reactions of the provided materials”. During the process of learning, the teacher has to provide the learning situation to satisfy the natural reaction of the learner and this is through the use of instructional materials. The attention of the learner is caught and his interest is also won and he is ready to learn.

Fawcett Hills (1994) also contributing on the role of outline learning aids in stimulating interest stated that “A friendly, accepting group climate is important in any learning situations, especially those materials that require students to reveal their ignorance and confront their fellow students”. When there is a climate of acceptance for learning, then learning is stimulated.

Individualized Instruction: Lestage, A. (2009) stressed that outline learning aids provide a means of individualizing instruction. This he said is possible through programmed learning and tapes which enable the learner to learn at his pace and also to work on his own. Moreover, according to Dike, (1993) the machine frees the teacher to work with individual students, since he or she is not now required to carry out routine drills. Production of resources by students is another way of individualizing instruction.

Making learning permanent :Audio-visual resources can play a major role of making learning permanent, Gopal, (2010) stressed that “audio-visual methods do seem to facilitate the acquisition, the retention and the recall of lessons learned, because, they seem to evoke the maximum response of the whole organism to the situations in which learning is done. And perceptual materials readily associate themselves with the unique experiential background of each individual. (Natoli, C. 2011) stressed that outline learning aids are important in the teaching and learning processes because “Having seen something, most people remember, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a mere mention and can be talked about freely.

Dike N.M (2011) also explained that students forget because of lack of interest and opportunities to use the knowledge they have gained later on. Audio-visual resources can therefore contribute to the clarity of information presented by allowing students to visualize what is learned. Thus the sayingNatoli,(2011): What I hear, I forget, WhatI see, I remember, What I do, I know.

Therefore, it is extremely important to investigate the effects of the use of outline learning aids on students’ learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The alarming condition of Secondary school students learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government may be attributed to lack of interest on the part of the learners which is as a result of the absence of the use of outline learning aids by the teacher Eze, (2012). Students do not retain for long or understand what they are taught without outline learning aids.

Despite the outstanding positive effect of educational materials to instructional activities, teachers still insist only on the use of conventional approach to instruction, which is not based in sense experience nor does it extend their experience. Above all, such learning cannot be permanent. Yet, there is also evidence of low utilization and non-availability of outline learning aids in schools, which has led to students lack of interest, attention and active participation in the teaching and learning exercise which might be responsible for the poor academic performance of students generally. Hence they have not been able to impact fully on Basic Science education achievement.

The problem now is will the use of outline learning aids effectively improve students `learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government?

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study mainly sought to investigate the effect of the use of outline learning aids on students’ learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

Specifically, it tends to determine:

1. The effect of the use of outline learning aids on students’ learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

2. The effect of the use of outline learning aids on male and female students’ learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

3. The interactive effect of method and gender on students learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This study was guided by the following research questions:

1. What is the effect of the use of outline learning aids on students’ learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government?

2. What is the mean achievement score of male and female students taught Basic Science education with learning aids?

3. What is the interactive effect of method and gender on students learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
The following null hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of 0.05

HO1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught Using learning aids and those taught using conventional teaching method.

HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement on male and female students taught with learning aids.

HO3: There is no significant interaction between gender and method on students’ mean learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The quest for an acceptable, relevant and adequate method of instruction for teaching and learning of Basic Science has been of great concern to science educators. The developments and innovations in the Basic Science instructional processes tend to identify some good qualities of the use of outline learning aids.

Discoveries from this study will encourage the use of outline learning aids is in teaching and learning of Basic Science education following the identification of the hindrances to maximum utilization of audio-visual resources in schools, effort will be made to minimize the effect of the hindrances and promote adequate utilization of the available resources. The result of this study will be made available to Basic Science education teachers in the school system through workshops and seminars so that they can utilize the methods effectively in the classroom. The results of this will guide teachers on whether to separate instructional materials/materials for male and females students.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is concerned with the investigation of the effect of the use of outline learning aids on students’ learning outcome in Obio Akpor Local Government. The study was restricted to Secondary schools in Rivers State only. The study will also investigate the effect of the use of outline learning aids on the achievement of male and female students in obio Akpor Local Government.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 57 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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