SELECTED FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER SATISFACTION AND PROFESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS TEACHERS IN GATANGA DISTRICT, MURANG’A COUNTY

ABSTRACT
Career satisfaction among teachers is very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. However, many teachers in Kenya are leaving the teaching frontline for jobs in other sectors. This study sought to establish the influence of the selected factors on career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers in Gatanga District. The target population of the study was 460 teachers from 32 secondary schools in Gatanga District, Kenya. The sample composed of 170 teachers selected using random sampling methods, 30 HODs and 10 principals purposively selected. Schools were stratified into girls’ schools, boys’ schools and mixed secondary schools. The study employed ex post facto research design. Items sought responses on working conditions, motivation, supervision and qualification as selected factors influencing career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers. Piloting was done with twenty teachers and five HODs from two schools which were not part of the sample. Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.707 was established for teachers’ questionnaire. Reliability for the HODs questionnaire was 0.732. Descriptive statistics (percentages and frequencies) were used to analyze data with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SSPS). Results revealed that the teachers’ and HODs’ characteristics such as personality, age and gender had no statistically significant influence on career satisfaction and professional achievement. However, working conditions, motivation, supervision and qualification were statistically significant. About 65.4% of teachers agreed that the selected factors had influence on career satisfaction and professional achievement. The study recommends that all stakeholders should be consulted since career satisfaction and professional achievement had proven to have great impact on teachers’ performance. The findings of the study are expected to be useful to TSC, Heads of Institutions and the Ministry of Education to reduce career satisfaction and professional achievement related problems exhibited among secondary school teachers.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Employees in organizations and learning institutions like to feel that someone cares about their work and appreciates it which in turn motivates them to work more effectively. Owens (2004) describes motivation as the forces that cause people to behave as they do. He further points out that behaviorists think of it as extrinsic while others believe it is intrinsic. Generally, in schools, the challenge for administrators is to develop highly motivated teachers who are actively engaged in teaching and learning, open to new ideas and approaches, and committed to students and change over the lifetime of their teaching careers. Teacher motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, motivated teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of satisfaction and fulfillment. While teacher motivation is fundamental to the teaching and learning process, several teachers are not highly motivated. This observation should be taken seriously and an investigation into the factors influencing teacher motivation is therefore necessary to achieve the educational goals in every learning institution. Compared with other professions, teachers across various countries, school contexts, and subject fields exhibit higher levels of emotional symptoms. According to Dai and Sternberg (2004), high levels of job dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout can negatively influence motivation and job performance. According to Gorham and Millete, (1997) teachers who report low levels of motivation tend to perceive their students‘motivation levels as low.

Many factors have been found to promote teacher motivation. Pay incentives, for example, have been found to be unsuccessful in increasing motivation. In a study done by Ofoegbu (2004) in Nigeria on: Teacher motivation as a factor for classroom effectiveness and school improvement; he found that teacher motivation enhances classroom effectiveness and improves schools. Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation‘s future. Michaelowa (2002) in her study on analysis of the key determinants of teacher motivation in the developing country context, found that large class size, double-shifting, rural location, high educational attainment and active parental involvement negatively correlated with teacher job satisfaction in these countries. She further found that the level of communication between teachers and school managers had no statistically significant impact on teacher job satisfaction.

A study done by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which is an international organization, in 1994 pointed to the importance of the motivation of teachers towards their jobs. In a research report on teachers in developing countries, undertaken by Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) in the U.K in 2002 noted that, one of the main findings was that teachers' motivation was fragile and declining. The report noted that "There is a strong link between teachers' motivation and performance, and education quality, but improving teachers' motivation is not uniformly prioritized as a major concern of national and international policy-makers" (VSO, 2002: 2). The report added that addressing the factors that reduce teachers' motivation should be a major concern of policy makers; this was to create conditions for the success of other education interventions (VSO, 2002). In Kenya, a study done by Majanga, Nasongo and Sylvia (2010) on the influence of class size on classroom interaction in the wake of Free Primary Education (FPE), they found that FPE created increased class sizes, shortage of teachers, heavy teachers' working load and lack of teacher motivation. They further found that teachers are demoralized with heavy workloads, handling many lessons, many pupils and work for long hours. Sirima and Poipoi (2010) also reported in a study in Busia District in Kenya that public secondary school teachers with high levels of job satisfaction tend to have high social, and psychological atmosphere in the classroom that result in high productivity and effectiveness in job performance and willingness to stay longer.

Lukuyani, M. (2004) observes that there are various difficulties in attracting teachers to the hard to reach areas. These difficulties arise because of a number of reasons among them: low compensation (other professions requiring similar educational qualification offer higher compensation); poor working conditions; lack of professional development opportunities; little mobility to better positions; inadequate professional support and supervision; unprofessional treatment of teachers; and lack of incentive systems to stimulate and motivate teachers to remain in the teaching field. Gatanga district of central province has not been spared in these issues in the education sector. Teachers are the key factor in school organization and the development of any country depends on their work; every country needs educated citizens. It is against this background that the study sought to establish how the aforementioned factors influences the career satisfaction and professional achievement as it relates to the teaching profession in secondary schools in Gatanga district of the Central province in Kenya.

Statement of Problem
Career satisfaction among teachers is very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. However, many teachers in Kenya are leaving the teaching frontline for jobs in other sectors. There have been a number of studies on teacher motivation and job satisfaction which has prescribed interventions to address the challenges. However, despite the many efforts of addressing these challenges, we are still witnessing a teaching force that is lethargic and indifferent in assisting the learners to acquire the knowledge and competencies for future career formation. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of career satisfaction factors among the teaching force taking a case of Gatanga District, Kenya.

Purpose of the Study
This study sought to establish the influence of the selected factors on career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers in Gatanga District.

Research Objectives
The following objectives guided this study.

i) To determine the level of career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers in Gatanga district in relation to their teaching profession.

ii) To examine the influence of working conditions, motivation, supervision and qualification as the selected factors on the career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers.

iii) To establish whether there is a relationship between career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers.

iv) To establish whether there is a difference between male and female teachers in career satisfaction and professional achievement

v) To examine the influence of the career satisfaction and professional achievement on the teachers performance.

Research Questions
The following questions were answered by the study:

i) What is the teachers’ level of career satisfaction and professional achievement in Gatanga district related to their teaching profession?

ii) What impact do the selected factors have on the career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers?

iii) Is there any relationship between career satisfaction and professional achievement?

iv) Is there any difference between male and female teachers in career satisfaction and professional achievement?

v) What impact does career satisfaction and professional achievement have on teachers’ performance?

Significance of the Study
Secondary school teachers perform very important curriculum and co-curriculum duties. This study reveals the influence of selected factors such as working conditions, motivation, supervision and qualification on career satisfaction and professional achievement among secondary school teachers. The study is expected to aid the Ministry of the Education in strengthening the teaching profession which is facing challenges related to teachers’ career satisfaction and professional achievement. The study findings will contribute to the general field of knowledge, which is one of the main objectives of research work.

Scope of the Study
This study targeted secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from Gatanga district. Teachers in different categories of schools were involved. These categories included Girls’, Boys’ and Mixed schools. This scope was considered adequate enough to provide diversity in the respondents’ characteristics and their responses as well. Selected factors that might influence career satisfaction and professional achievement were also investigated. These included working conditions, motivation, supervision and qualification.

Limitation of the Study
This study encountered a number of limitations.

i). The study was restricted to selected secondary schools in Gatanga District.

ii). Only teachers, HODs and Principals from sampled schools were involved in the study. Therefore, the findings of the study should be confined to the sampled schools and generalization to other schools should therefore be done with caution.

Assumptions of the Study
In this study it was assumed that:

i) The respondents had similar characteristics with all other teachers in secondary schools throughout the district.

ii) The respondents were able to interpret the questionnaires correctly.

iii) All teachers had a need for career satisfaction and professional achievement.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 73 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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