SANITATION PROTOCOLS IN UNIVERSITY OF JOS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON HEALTH

ABSTRACT
Sanitation protocols has been important since time immemorial. With the unprecedented increase in population worldwide, especially in Sub Saharan Africa, sanitation protocolshas been vital for good health, good environment and aesthetics of its towns and cities. The research intended to study the impact of sanitation protocols on the health status of students; a case of sanitation protocols in the University of Jos, Nigeria and it focuses on the following objectives:- to examine how sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, to assess how sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, to examine how environmental pollution created by sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, and, to determine how social conflicts created by sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos. The research design is a descriptive survey. The target population of this study is 6420 from the said region. A pilot study was done to check the reliability and validity of the instruments’. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which were administered personally, via e-mails, enumerators and pick them after they have been filled. The data was then coded and analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square tested the hypothesis. 99 questionnaires were administered to the respondents with a return rate of 91%. The study concludes that the Sanitation protocols in the University of Jos just like any other in the rest of the world have led to jobs creation in the area and other surrounding environs. It also concludes that health hazards and issues have been surrounding the implementation of the Sanitation protocols in the area just like any Sanitation protocols across the world in countries like China, India, Uganda, and many more.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
It is believed that God created man in his own image to be in control of the environment and make the best out of it as recorded in the bible (Gen 1:26-31). But man in his search for daily bread, quest for knowledge and materials wealth, has turned round to pollute the beautiful environment. From the earliest times man has been striving to control the environment. But as said earlier, man owns the health and life. That is why he found himself from the dragon headed problems he has caused himself in recent times. Sanitation protocols has become a topical subject at international, national state and local spheres. This is aim at initiating action to arrest the fast deteriorating environmental health status worldwide. In Nigeria, today the congestion of people in urban areas which is mainly as a result of rural urban migration the concentration of industrial establishment and share increase in population have made the control of the environment imperative and equally challenging.

To improve the general sanitation protocols of the major town in Nigeria has always constituted a big problem to both individual and government with the result that the town/cities are being strangulated by things generated by the inhabitant. The result of this condition is environmental pollution in all its ramification. The problems of pollution have also found its way into the political area and every community in every state has been confronted difficulties of his environment. To the man concern regarding pollution is the adverse effect exerted on the health of the people. The problems of poor sanitation and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians are so serious that the federal military government had to come into check the situation towards achieving “health for all by the year 2010” as declared by the world health organization (WHO). Several strategies were mapped out and adopted by the federal government (the military regime in 1984 to achieve this objective. Consequently, the sanitation protocolss were mounted throughout the federation. This was followed by the establishment of the “task force on sanitation protocols” at both state and local levels to co0ordinate this elaborate programme.

Plateau state chapter was launched on 20th March 1984 by the then state military governor SANYA. This led to the appointment of captain JOSHUA AYODELE as the state chairman of the taskforce on sanitation protocols-the position he actively held till the task force was decentralized in October, 1988 this sanitation movement was backed up legally by edicts for Plateau state it was captioned edict No 18 of 1984, which took effect from Monday April 2nd 1984. At the local government level too, sanitation protocols committees were appointed with members down from various walks of life. Serious sanitation were imposed on individuals public and private establishment or corporate bodies who fell short of the expected governments guidelines on sanitation protocols or health habits and practices. For instance, dirty filthy private premises dumping of refuse in unauthorized places. Urinating or defecating in public places were punishable by the fine ranging from N 100-1000, or punishment as the case may be.

Food hygiene, street trading, unauthorized parking of vehicles were also areas of concern which were also embedded in WAI “War Against Indiscipline” meant to inculcate in people correct healthful living habits, attitude and practices. Later, incentives were put and the programme became competitive in nature among the various state and local government areas of the federal republic of Nigeria. This effort was also aimed at identifying the nation with the cause of the world health organization which then declared June 1984 as the “World sanitation protocols Day”- with War Against filthy environment as the theme. Because of the military nature of the implementation of the new sanitation protocols people responded accordingly, but not without close supervision. Consciously or unconsciously, most of our town and cities were given some face-lift for sometime. Health implication of their poor health habits and practices the motives of the sanitation protocols are often misunderstood to their “status quo” when they are no longer closely supervised.

Infact, the problem of poor sanitation protocols and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians have persisted despite the various sanctions or stringent measured taken by governments and other health agencies to enforce a change of attitude among the people. It is important to note too that all the while emphasis has been concern about the mass rural population or communities that contribute significantly to the urban populace, it then stands to reason to assert that the individuals home orientation would also be unconsciously exhibited in a new environment. Hence the neglect of the sanitation crusade at the grassroots level has made the sanitation efforts in most of our town and cities abortive.

1.2 Statement of The Problems
The main concern of the study, therefore is to identify investigate and find out answer to the following sub problems.

The psychological impact of the programme on the health status of students in University of Jos, Plateau State.

The sociological influence on the people in University of Jos hostel by the sanitation protocols.

The impact of the programme on the economic development of the community.

The impact of the University of Jos experiment on the physical development of the said community.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To examine how sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

2. To assess how poor sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

3. To determine how social conflicts created by sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions
1. How do sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria?

2. How do sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria?

3. How do social conflicts created by sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis
The study was guided by the following alternative research hypothesis:

H1: Sanitation protocols have a significant effect on the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

H1: Sanitation protocols have a significant effect on the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance Of The Study
The “University of Jos experiment” is a unique venture in the recent time and in the history of sanitation protocols in the urban level. The result of the findings of the study would therefore be useful to not only the government but also to individuals, the public and the community. To the government, it could help in reviewing their former strategies with a view of achieving health for all at a low or no significant cost. The findings and recommendation may stimulate health challenges in other rural/urban community towards inculcating and maintaining health habits and practices thereby advancing lasting solution to the fast global environmental decay.

To the community, the study could be a source of motivation that could immortalize the initiative of the people and so this health practice part of the people so this health practice part of the people culture. The result of the investigation could also initiate further research in the health area, in the effort to establishing a more dynamic health culture for the world at large.

1.7 Definition of Terms
In the course of this study certain operational technical terms were unavoidably used in the write-up to express some views. Those terms have however, been defined herefore the quick understanding.

Catch them young- The act of involving children of tender age in the sanitation activities-aimed at training them to group with good/correct health habits, attitude and practices.

Sanitation protocols-the control of all those factors in mans environmental which exercises or may exert a delicious effect on his physical development, health and survival.

Influence- The impact made by something through invisible or intangible means.

The mass-community Action-A joint cooperative and coordination venture involving all members of the community.

Mass-Mobilization-involvement of all able-bodies citizens in carrying out a programme.

Modus-operand-The manner by which an activity operated.

Pollution- Contamination or unfavourable change in physical, chemical or biological conditions in the environment, which exert may exert harmful effects on the quality of human life. Including effects on other animals, plants, industries as well as cultural and aesthetic assets.

Population- A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting in a specific area.

Status Quo- The original state of affairs/habits.

Task force- A temporary merging of units or individuals under once command with the purpose of accomplishing a specific mission or finding a solution to a particular problems.

World Health Organization (WHO) this is the greatest world health organization. It was formed in 1942. After the Second World War. It is an arm of the United Nation organization (UNO) and has its all-independent nations are members. sanitation protocols.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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