Residential mobility is the mechanism whereby the character of social areas is maintained or changed; hence residential mobility of civil servants has been a focus of intense research for the past few decades. However, in spite of the notable works in the area, many factors influencing residential mobility are still shrouded in obscurity. Against this background, the study examines the pattern of residential mobility in Kaduna North. Data on socio economic characteristics of the respondents, cultural factors, reasons for relocation and distance moved were collected in the field by the use of questionnaire. This study used logit model to carry out analysis on the factors of residential mobility in the metropolis. The result of the logit model shows that the factor of religion reliably predicted the residential mobility within the area. The analysis of the directional movement of civil servants along religious divide shows a directional bias but with less precision as reversal flows were also evident. The lesson from this finding is that more effort should be geared towards research on residential mobility, as a unique factor of religion; hitherto, not given adequate attention in the literature is a major factor of mobility in Kaduna North.

1.1 Background to the Study
The movement of civil servants within an area is an increasingly important issue which has attracted research interest over the years (Ahmed, 1995; Pawson and Bramley, 2000; Oishi, 2010; Oluwole, 2013). This growing interest in mobility is particularly prominent within population geography (Tyner, 2013). Gobillon (2008) posits that residential mobility is necessitated by response to a change in housing needs. The response rate may have implications for the social stability of urban neighborhood. van der Vlist, Gorter, Nijkamp and Rietveld (2001), Pawson and Bramley (2000) explained that the relatively inelastic supply of housing in the short run will cause scarcity of housing and this, in turn, will lead to social disorder. It is therefore necessary for models of land use dynamics to consider residential relocation or mobility behavior of civil servants in the forecast for future land use patterns which are critical to activity and travel demand forecasting. Eluru, Sener, Bhat, Pendyala and Axhausen (2008) regard residential mobility as a critical component of land use dynamics. This is because land use dynamics are, in part, driven by relocation decisions made by civil servants. Civil servant behaviour plays a crucial role in urban system performance and can profoundly shape the urban landscape (Li, 2014).

Residential mobility, which varies widely with characteristics of the civil servant, and which may also be influenced, in part, by neighborhood characteristics or community – level variables, is thus one of the key factors in the demographic dynamics of the neighborhood (Browning and Burrington, 2006; Pendakur and Young, 2013). Residential mobility is important for its influence on the local housing and labour markets and the efficient allocation of resources across the urban economy. A better understanding of the economics of housing decisions is essential for budgetary planning and taxation where local government finance is driven by population and the distribution of the housing stock (Whitehead, 1999; Kloop, 2002; Gibb, 2006; Namazi-Rad, Shukla, Munoz, Mokhtarian and Ma,2013). Hui (2006) explained that mobility has wide-range impacts on the financial management of property issues such as consumption and investment on housing. Residential mobility is the mechanism through which the character of social areas is maintained or changed while social areas themselves provide the context in which individuals make decisions about their residential location and subsequent mobility (Siddle, 2000; Clark and Withers, 2007). Likewise, Clark and Withers (2007) explained that the special interest the spatial demographers have in residential mobility is as a result of how residential mobility changes the character of neighborhoods and cities.

Numerous studies have shown that the propensity to move is associated with a number of factors such as age, life-cycle stage, education, occupation, tenure, duration of residence, cost of rent and location relative to the center of the city. These factors have frequently been found to discriminate ‘movers’ from ‘stayers’. Other reasons include realtors’ involvement in the search process and tendency of civil servants to maximize expected utility (Speare, 1974; Olatubara, 2008). Afolayan (1976) referred to the factors that may lead to changes in the initial location of migrants as ‘dislocating forces. Ahmad (1992) and Afolayan (1994) identified social links as important reasons for residential mobility among African civil servants. Li and Tu (2021) posit intra-urban migrants prefer to settle close to friends or relatives, or in areas where the majority of civil servants are of the same ethnic background. Aluko (2021) buttressed this assertion by stating that neighborhoods are geographic units within which certain social relationships exist. This behaviour in turn affects social ties and interactions, thereby leading to the consolidation, breaking and reconstruction of families and friendship groups (Holdsworth, 2013; Heath and Calvert, 2013; Coulter, van Ham, and Findlay, 2015). Spilimbergo and Ubeda (2004), Dawkins (2006) and Zorlu (2008) have shown that family ties matter in spatial mobility in the United States. Such links as kinship, family and cultural ties could lead to changes in residences as well as the expansion of certain areas of a city.

Lundholm and Malmberg, 2012). Olatubara (2008) and Coulton, Theodos and Turner (2013) describe urban residential mobility as a complex process, which in turn has significant imprint on the urbanscape. Beatty, Lawless, Pearson and Wilson (2009) stated that residential mobility impacts on neighborhood renewal in complex ways. On the one hand, mobility amongst individuals may be seen as positive, in that it may reflect access to better housing or employment circumstances. On the other hand, high levels of mobility in deprived areas can be problematic, being often associated with decreasing social capital and increasing demands on local services. The reason for and the pattern of moves are so complicated both at the micro and macro levels that they make it difficult for one to predict. Hence, Animashaun (2021) suggested the need for empirical study of residential mobility in several cities. Such a study is necessary in Kaduna North as the significant political, social and economic transformations Kaduna North has witnessed over a period of 1997 to 2021 would be difficult to understand without considering the role of the significant population movements within the region. Kaduna has witnessed massive residential mobility over the period of 15 years. Hence, the unprecedented change of residences presents Kaduna North as a major research interest.

1.2 Research Problem
The study of intra urban residential mobility has been popular among social scientists, as it is felt that the changing economic and demographic structure of cities can only be fully understood by analyzing the underlying factors associated with residential movement patterns (Cadwallader, 1982; Huang and Deng, 2006). The dominant view during the 1970s and 1980s assumed that residential choice belongs to the broader spectrum of individual economic behavior (Sonis, 1992; Benenson, 2004). A typical example is the trade-off between housing and travel costs (Alonso, 1964; Muth, 1969; Kim, Pagliara and Preston, 2005). The closer the residential location to work (that is, the lower the commuting costs), the higher the probability that the agents will choose this location for residence. Civil servants evaluate the benefits of particular housing locations and the costs of commuting between these locations and their work places (Clark and Huang, 2004). Basically, the optimization assumption adjusts residential distributions to the distribution of jobs, commerce and transport networks over regions (Alonso, 1964; Mills and Hamilton, 1989). However, the optimization assumption has failed to survive empirical tests. For instance, the trade-off between housing and commuting costs is either not true at all, or is so weak that it can be ascertained only after the effects of housing and neighborhood characteristics are eliminated (Herrin and Kern, 1992; van Ommeren, Rietveld and Nijkamp, 1996; Benenson, 2004). The optimization assumption has failed to explain the unprecedented intra-city residential mobility such as witnessed in Kaduna North from the tail-end of 20th Century to the first decade of 21st Century.

Gbakeji and Rilwani (2009) researched on the effect of socio-economic factors of residents on the intra-urban residential mobility process in the Warri metropolis, Nigeria. Fattah, Salleh, Badarulzaman and Ali (2015) using logistic regression method found age, occupation and tenure of civil servants as the significant factors affecting residential mobility of civil servants in Penang, Malaysia. Wu (2006) found age and education to be the significant predictors of intra-urban migrant mobility in Beijing and Shanghai. Balcer, Bentley, Lester and Beer(2016) found housing affordability to be the most important driver of residential mobility of some of the Australians into less advantaged areas. Kevin, Feng, Faller, Grace, Stivell and Elsa(2014) researched on the issue of residential mobility in Congo and found inadequate means to housing affordability as an important reason for residential mobility in the city of Brazzaville. Interest in residential mobility has focused on housing affordability, increased externalities, dissatisfaction with present accommodation and changes in civil servant structure. These factors encourage gradual relocation of civil servants within cities. However, the massive residential mobility such as witnessed in Kaduna North between 1997 and 2021 has received limited empirical attention in the literature. Hence, this study is set out to investigate the pattern, the volume, the causes as well as the implications of the mobility.

1.3 Research Questions
The questions addressed in this research are:

1. What is the pattern of residential mobility of civil servants in Kaduna North?

2. What is the rate of the residential mobility of civil servants?

3. What is the relationship between residential mobility and distance?

4. What are the causes of the residential mobility of civil servants?

5. What is the relationship between residential choice and neighborhood characteristics?

4. What are the implications of residential mobility of civil servants in Kaduna North?

1.4 Objectives of the Study
2. Determine the current pattern of residential mobility within Kaduna North

3. Determine the rate of residential mobility

4. Determine the relationship between residential mobility and distance

5. Identify the factors in residential mobility

6. Determine the relationship between residential choice and neighborhood characteristics

7. Examine the implications of the emerging residential pattern for the effective management of Civil servants in Kaduna North

1.5 Research Hypotheses
i. The volume of residential mobility decreases with increasing distance from points of origin

ii. Residential mobility is influenced by socio-economic and cultural factors

iii. Residential choice is influenced by neighbourhood characteristics

iv.There is residential segregation along sectarian lines within Kaduna North

1.6 Significance of the Study
Residential mobility is not a new phenomenon. However, most of the factors that induce intra-urban residential mobility are not well known (Olatubara, 2008; Ngaminiet al., 2014). Hence Animashaun (2021) stresses the need for more studies in several cities, most especially in the developing countries of the world so that some of the important factors that trigger mobility but are yet to be given their rightful place in the literature will be revealed. This study is designed to extend the knowledge base that currently exists in the field of residential mobility. It affirms the principles of the ‘push-pull’ theory and the model of residential tipping. It will also provides new insights to the importance of religion in residential mobility. The information generated by this study, will therefore inform policy that will mitigate the negative effects of massive residential mobility in cities.

1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is specifically about intra-urban residential mobility of civil servants in Kaduna North. It covers the entire Kaduna North. The study will cover the period of 2007 – 2019, a period that witnessed massive residential mobility within Kaduna North.

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