INFLUENCE OF SELECTED FACTORS ON STUDENTS’ AND TEACHER COUNSELLORS’ PERCEPTION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN BUNGOMA COUNTY PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Guidance and counselling is an important component of education that helps students to successfully cope with challenges of life. Students with maladaptive behaviour are assisted to correct and overcome difficulties facing them. Students are encouraged to identify and avoid risky situations through acquisition of life skills, attitudes and living values that can help them manage their problems. This is contrary to what is being observed in Bungoma County as students still show maladjusted behaviour as seen through strikes, drug abuse, early pregnancies and dropping out of school. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools students in Bungoma County. The study employed an ex post facto causal-comparative research design. The study focused on 206 public secondary schools in Bungoma County with a population of 41,310 students. Using stratified random sampling, 16 schools, form 2 and 3 classes were selected to participate in the study. Simple random sampling method was used to select a sample of students and purposive sampling was used to select teacher counsellors. A sample of 389 students and 15 teacher counsellors participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to gather data from students and teacher counsellors’. A pilot study on 30 students and three teacher counsellors in Bungoma County was carried out. Reliability was established using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. The results yielded a coefficient 0.71 which was considered acceptable. Validity of instruments was ascertained by the experts in the Department of Psychology, Counselling and Educational Foundations. Data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Hypotheses of the study were tested using t - test at α = 0.05.Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 for Windows was used in data analysis. The findings revealed that there were significant differences on the influence of selected factors (culture, peers, family, mass media and gender) on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling. The students, teacher counsellors and parents would hopefully find the study findings useful for effective guidance and counselling programmes in secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Counselling is a concept that has existed for a long time. Human beings have sought through ages to understand themselves and develop their potential, become aware of opportunities and in general, help themselves in ways associated with formal guidance and counselling practice. People can help others to deal with their problems. Some people help others find ways of dealing with, solving or transcending problems (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2000).

Chireshe (1989) states that guidance and counselling services begun in America in the early 1900s to assist students with their educational development and career aspirations. Career guidance and counselling in schools was introduced for different reasons in different countries. The guidance movement started in the U.S.A. with an emphasis on vocational information, planning and guidance. Vocational guidance was regarded as the process of assisting pupils and students and other persons to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of themselves and their role in the world of work.

In Britain, guidance and counselling was started as a reaction to changes in society, in family and in schools which created conditions where greater attention to individual needs was necessary. This came to be offered as career guidance and as a service for young people who were having difficulties adjusting to the demands of school and college life. According to (Wango, 2006) the provision of counselling and related services in educational settings in England and Wales were first developed in a systematic way in the mid-1960s. For instance, during the 1960’s, the universities of Keele and Reading introduced counselling courses and this led to the evolvement of counselling services in Britain. Tailor (1971) further states that social pressure from urbanization, decline in family tradition and the industrial revolution created emotional turbulence among students as they were studying under higher anxiety levels as competition levels had become stiffer. In Hong Kong, guidance and counselling services were introduced in 1950s because of the increased variation in children’s background, increased developmental tasks, personal and social problems, lack of motivation towards school work, disruptive behaviour in classroom and the rise in juvenile delinquency (Chireshe, 2006).

In Africa, guidance and counselling is relatively new. Prior to Western influence, most African traditional societies had various forms of social services provided for young people and children to develop and grow into responsible and reproductive members of the society (UNESCO, 2000). Children and young people were inducted into cultural values, beliefs, customs and future roles according to their gender. They were socialized into the community through history, oral narratives, proverbs and riddles, songs and dances and also the various skills to earn their future living. The extended family provided other support services as a source of information and help as in counselling. Children in traditional African society were guided and counselled by elder relatives, parents, uncles and aunts in the informal context and during initiation ceremonies. The initiation ceremonies were also used to induct the initiates into their new roles as adults, future parents and as members of the community (Wango, 2006). Makinde (1994) notes that counselling aims at understanding and thus helping students prevent frustration, restore self understanding and educates on tasks necessary for good student growth and development. Guidance gives direction to the achievement of developmental tasks of students. Educational guidance and counselling help students clarify their goals, values, strengthen their interests and aspirations, appreciate their philosophies and cognition and adjust to the norms of society.

Literature on guidance and counselling is rather scanty in Africa, but according to Makinde (1994) guidance dates back to 1959 in Nigeria by a group of catholic sisters at St. Theresa’s college Ibadan. In other countries, such as Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia and Swaziland, guidance and counselling did not exist until the late sixties. Formalization and integration of guidance and counselling services into education system begun in the late fifties and it is still on trial - and - error basis and it is not well established. However, there is greater awareness of the need for guidance and counselling services in schools (UNESCO, 2000).While the focus on career guidance continues in most African countries, some countries such as Botswana (which introduced its guidance and counselling in the education system in 1963), are now trying to develop comprehensive guidance programmes that cater for the personal, social, vocational and educational needs for the learner.

In Kenya, guidance and counselling as a profession is a concept of the 1970s. Though there was some form of counselling before the 70s, this was more or less a private family affair. Professional guidance and counselling started in the 70s as a result of the first guidance and counselling conference which was held in 1967. This was on the realization that academic work alone could not produce an all rounded person who was useful to the self and to the community he serves. Subsequent to the conference the Ministry of Education established guidance and counselling unit in 1971(Ngumba & Okech, 1991). Mutie and Ndamuki (1999) observe that guidance and counselling was becoming increasingly important. This was because the country was faced with many, new problems that required special psychological or social services, which were peripheral to education. These services were meant for all students not just those who deviate from the norms in one way or the other. Mutie and Ndambuki (1999) observed that the objectives of guidance and counselling included: helping students gain insight into the origins and the development of emotional difficulties as these leads to an increased capacity to take rational control over their feelings and actions. It also changes maladaptive behaviour by assisting students move towards fulfilling their potential or to achieve an integration of previously conflicting parts of themselves. In addition, guidance and counselling provide students with skills, awareness and knowledge which enable them to confront social inadequacies. This knowledge is important in empowering students to make right decision despite the challenges facing them thus promoting peaceful and harmonious existence.

The Kenyan government is strengthening the guidance and counselling services through the Ministry of Education, as private agencies are also promoting guidance and counselling in schools. According to Kenya Institute of Education (2004) the government has recognized guidance and counselling as an essential service that must be offered to all learners in schools. This is in agreement with Ajowi and Simatwa (2010) who noted that the role of guidance and counselling in Kenya had been recognised by the government through the various policy documents since independence. These includes the “ Report on the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies of 1976” which recommended that guidance and counselling be taught using subjects like Religious Education, Social Education and Ethics to enable the school to promote the growth of self-discipline among students.

The Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond otherwise referred to as the Kamunge Report (Republic of Kenya, 1988) and the ensuing Sessional Paper No. 6 (Republic of Kenya, 1988) emphasized that guidance and counselling was useful in helping individuals face the realities of life, identify talents, interests, needs and aptitude. It recommended that schools establish guidance and counselling programmes and that a mature and responsible teacher co-ordinates the programme (Wango, 2006).

The effort and attention given to guidance and counselling is expected to produce disciplined students in peaceful schools. Students should show ability to manage life challenges such as unhappiness, annoyance, and inability to meet needs, lack of knowledge, partial or total failure, inability to turn aspirations into fruition, anxiety and hyperactivity. On the contrary, the opposite is being observed as many Kenyan schools continue to experience widespread unrest with devastating consequences. The unrest in schools has changed over time from simple protests to destruction of property and in recent times killing of fellow students (Samoei, 2012).

The success of guidance and counselling is dependant on students and teacher counsellorsn perception. Perceptions on the other hand are shapped by the environment as advocated by behavioural theorists (Santrock, 2005). Skinner (1938) observed that what is done is not because of in-born motivation but rather because of environmental conditions experienced. The current study sought to determine the influence of selected factors in the environment on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling. Samoei(2012) outlines the following factors as affecting effective guidance and counselling; cultural factors, students’ peers, students’ family, mass media and gender. These factors formed the basis for this study.

Statement of the Problem
Guidance and counselling services have been put in place in public secondary schools in Kenya. These services are meant to assist students to develop their academic, social and personal competencies in order to make realistic choices and relevant decisions in life. Despite the government efforts, unrest has continued in secondary schools with a new dimension. Bett and Sigilai (2013) note that in the past two decades, concern had been raised to the effect that there was unabated violent incidents of students’ unrest in Secondary schools that resulted in loss of property worth millions of shillings and lives in Kenya. Consequently, distress, depression and unhappiness have become part and parcel of students’ life in the secondary schools. Bungoma County is not an exception with regard to student indiscipline and it had been cited as one of the counties in Kenya that is experiencing many cases of student indiscipline in schools (Bett & Sigilai, 2013). Research has not given much attention on the influence of selected factors that students and teacher counsellors interact with on daily basis. These factors (culture, students’ peers, family, mass media and gender) are important because they act as basis for students’ learning. The current study sought to determine the influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception on the role of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County in Kenya. The knowledge generated would help stakeholders to come up with new strategies to deal with selected factors for effective guidance and counselling programmes.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools students in Bungoma County.

Objectives of the Study
The following objectives guided the study;-

i) To determine the influence of culture on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

ii) To determine the influence of students’ peers on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

iii) To determine the influence of students’ family on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

iv) To determine the influence of mass media on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

v) To determine the influence of gender on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception on of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses guided the study;-

Ho1: There are no statistically significant differences between students and teacher counsellors on the influence of culture on perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

Ho2: There are no statistically significant differences between students and teacher counsellors on the influence of students’ peers on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

Ho3: There are no statistically significant differences between students and teacher counsellors on the influence of students’ family on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perceptions of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

Ho4: There are no statistically significant differences between students and teacher counsellors on the influence of mass media on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perceptions of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

Ho5: There are no statistically significant differences between students and teacher counsellors on the influence of gender on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perceptions of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County.

Significance of the Study
The study is expected to contribute to the advancement of knowledge about influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perceptions of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools. The study may lead to improved strategies in carrying out guidance and counselling in Kenya and other parts of the world. This study may also contribute to policy modifications, changes, or the formulation of new policies regarding the secondary school guidance and counselling in Kenya.

Scope of the Study
This study covered public secondary schools in Bungoma County. Public schools were chosen because they are run by the government and the community and they are bound by Government policies including the policy on guidance and counselling. The study focused on form two and three students and teacher counsellors. The study was focused to influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Bungoma County, Kenya.

Limitations of the Study
The main limitations of the study were;-

i) Due to the fact that the research study targeted students and teacher counsellors of public secondary schools in Bungoma County, generalization of the findings to other counties will only be done with a lot of caution.

ii) The data for this study are quantitative with no qualitative interviews to provide insights on the raw statistics. Subsequent research might include interviews with teacher counsellors and students to discover their feelings on the influence of selected factors on their perception of guidance and counselling.

iii) The study is a survey analysis that should be followed up with multivariate analysis to develop a more complete and accurate understanding of views toward influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling in public secondary schools.

Assumptions of the Study
The study relied on the following assumptions;-

i) Guidance and counselling programmes were established and fully operational in secondary schools in Bungoma County. Thus there are other factors which might have not been addressed that are responsible for the misbehaviour being observed in the secondary schools in the county.

ii) Students in public schools were exposed to similar guidance and counselling programmes and thus the challenges facing Bungoma County may be due to influence of selected factors on students’ and teacher counsellors’ perception of guidance and counselling.

For more Guidance & Counseling Projects Click here
===================================================================
Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 72 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
===================================================================

Share:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts