IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL'S JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS F.C.T

Abstract
This study was a survey of the impact of instructional material in teaching Social studies in Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council. Teachers in Nigeria over the years have been using the conventional instructional materials but modern ones are better and more effective. Information and communication technology (ICT) has made communication easy and has improved media instructional materials which Social studies teachers should be exposed to in Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council. Teachers are expected to be conversant with the use of these contemporary instructional material. The aim of the study was to assess the availability and usage of contemporary instructional materials in Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council with the following objectives. To assess the types of modern instructional materials in Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council in the above mentioned state. Determine the adequacy and use of such audio visual and electronic resources in the Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council and to assess the problems teachers and students face in the use of audio visual and electronic resources. The population for the study consisted of a total number of 174 Social studies students and 45 Social studies teachers making a total of 219 from the four Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council being covered in the study. The instrument used for data collection consisted of two sets of questionnaires, they are Social studies Teachers Inventory Questionnaire (STIQ) and Social studies Students Inventory Questionnaire (ASIQ). The major findings of the study indicate; Inadequate modern instructional materials in Selected private schools in Abuja Municipal area council, the adequacy and use of such instructional materials for teaching Fine and Applied Social studies was far below average as the modern materials were not available, Teachers competence on the use of modern instructional materials was more than that of students who largely depended on the colleges to provide them. Teachers and students face some problems which include lack of availability of modern instructional materials. Based on the findings, there is need for all stake holders in the educational sector to provide adequate modern materials. Institution should organize professional workshops and seminars that will guide the teachers on the use of contemporary materials.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Hypotheses
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Theoretical framework
2.3 Concept of Instructional materials
2.7 Influence of Instructional Materials in teaching and learning Social studies
2.8 Parameters for Measuring Academic Performance of students
2.10 Empirical Studies

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.3 Response to Research Questions
4.4 Testing of Hypotheses
4.5 Summary of Findings
4.6 Discussions of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Suggestions for further Study
REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The emergence and production of instructional materials had undergone several reviews and processes by different professionals in various fields of learning. These experts have developed and produced such materials in line with the needs of their areas of specialization and the resources available in their locality. Experience over the years has shown that teachers have been depending on excessive use of words to express and to convey ideas or facts in the teaching-learning process. This practice is termed the "chalk-talk" method. In modern times, advances in technology have made it possible to produce materials and devices that could be used to minimize the teachers talking all the time, make the message clearer, more interesting and easier for the learners to assimilate. (Onasanya, 2008). According to Soetan (2010), graphics materials include projectors, posters, sketches, globes, graphs and drawings. Graphics communicate facts and ideas clearly through combination of drawings, words and pictures. The use of graphics in teaching creates greater understanding of the materials being studied. They also help learners to visualize the whole concepts holistically showing the relationships with one another. The role of graphic materials in visual communication is therefore very unique and significant.

Olumorin (2009) in the simplest term defines instructional materials as those materials that help the teacher to teach with ease and the learners to learn without stress. The author explained that instructional materials appeal to the senses of seeing, touching, smelling, feeling and hearing. They include projected, non projected audio visual, printed and others. It also includes three dimensional objects that are produced through locally sourced materials, programme instruction, and instruction package. Natoli (2011) state that instructional materials are also referred to as Audio Visual (AV or A/V) which works with both sound and visual components. The production or use of such works or equipment to create and present works.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Instructional materials make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. But inspite of the benefits of instructional materials to teaching and learning, the scarcity of the instructional materials has hindered, to some extent, the efficiency of teaching and learning of Social studies.

In view of this difficulties, most teachers of Social studies still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of Social studies education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 1996). The researcher has taught for a number of years in some private school and had visited a number of private school as a resource person. Through these experiences, the researcher observed that most teachers in private school in the state did not fully make use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social studies to their students. This negligence of the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning of Social studies common to both the trained and untrained teachers affected the academic performance of students in Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council.

Hence, the question of academic performance and students‟ performance in SSCE is therefore usually discussed both in and outside the academic circles. In the last few years, it has been observed in most private school that a high percentage of students are performing very poorly in Social studies in National Examinations for example, WAEC and NECO (Examiner‟s Report, 2009) due to ill motivated behaviour of the students towards the Education, lack of professional teachers, existence of lazy teachers and lack of teaching facilities and equipment (David, 2014). Some of these reports have shown that there are poor academic activities in private school which obviously leads to rampant failure in external examinations among private school students. It is also observed that student‟s performance in Social studies in the Senior

School Certificate Examination (SSCE) has continue to be low over the years. Otanyemi (2000), in Mohammed (2003), state that there has been General outcry about poor students‟ performance in the Private school Examination especially in the social sciences. This study will examine the student‟s academic performance in Social studies as it relates to the availability of teaching resources among private school students in FCT.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
Objectives of this study are to;

1. identify the available instructional materials in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council;

2. investigate whether or not the availability of instructional materials has influence on the academic performance of students in Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council;

3. determine whether teachers use instructional materials in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council; and

4. find out whether teachers‟ improvise instructional materials in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council.

1.4 Research Questions
This research work sought to answer the following questions;

1. what instructional materials are available in teaching ofSocial studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council?

2. what influence does availability of instructional material has on students‟ academic performance in Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council?

3. does teachers use instructional materials in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council?

4. do teachers of Social studies improvise instructional materials in teaching of Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council?

1.5 Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the conduct of this study;

Ho1 there is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and students on the instructional materials that are available in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council;

Ho2 availability of instructional materials have no significant influence on the performance of students Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council;

Ho3 there is no significant difference in the opinion of the respondent on the teachers use of instructional materials in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council;

Ho4 there is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondents on the teachers‟ improvisation of instructional material in teaching of Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council.

1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study was based on the following assumptions;

1. that non availability of instructional materials affects student academic performance in Social studies in FCT.

2. that availability of instructional materials does not have any influence on students‟ academic performance in Social studies in FCT.

3. that there is no impact of the teachers use of instructional materials in teaching Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council.

4. that teachers‟ improvisation of instructional materials does not have influence in teaching of Social studies in schools in Abuja Municipal area council.

1.7 Significance of the Study
Findings from this study will be significant to students, teachers, curriculum planners, ministry of education and the society at large.

To the students, the effective use of instructional materials will enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question because, learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials. The use of instructional materials will give the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at difference levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility.

The study will enhance teachers‟ teaching effectiveness and productivity. The use of instructional materials provides alternative channels of communication which a teacher can use to compress information and make them more vivid to his learners. It also provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner‟s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. As a result, teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students‟ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.

To the curriculum planners, findings from this study will help them in making proper planning for the place of instructional materials while planning Social studies curriculum. However, the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Social studies is not only the issue, but also the appropriateness of the selected materials by the teacher to the topic at hand which sometimes make the lesson less effective and thereby render the materials useless. Findings from this study shall reveal to the curriculum planners that, Social studies contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such instructional materials, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives.

This study will recommend the State Ministry of Education through the Universal Basic Education Commission to purchase instructional resources required for effective teaching of Social studies and make them available in Schools throughout the State. The finding from the study will encourage the Ministry of Education to ensure that these materials are purchased and supplied to Schools. This will go a long way in ensuring that the pupils and students receive quality education. It will also recommend to the Ministry of Education on the need to train and retrain Social studies teaching through workshops on how to use instructional materials, how to improvise and source them from local available resources.

The study is also significant to the society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government‟s Social studies policies and activity and perform better in the choice of life and work.

Finally, this research work will contribute to knowledge as a reference material for scholars in the research field.

1.8 Scope of the Study
This study is designed to assess impact of instructional materials on the academic performance of private school students in Social studies in FCT, Nigeria. The study aims at finding whether variable like; instructional materials, teachers‟ improvisation and use of instructional materials are related to students‟ academic performance. Hence, the study shall be delimited to 32 Social studies teaching and 336 students in Private school in FCT.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 45 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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