Face is the representation of one’s identity. Hence, we have proposed an automated student attendance system based on face detection. Face detection system is very useful in life applications especially in security control systems. The airport protection system uses face detection to identify suspects and FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) uses face detection for criminal investigations. In our proposed approach, firstly, video framing is performed by activating the camera through a userfriendly interface. The face ROI is detected and segmented from the video frame by using Viola-Jones algorithm. In the pre-processing stage, scaling of the size of images is performed if necessary in order to prevent loss of information. The median filtering is applied to remove noise followed by conversion of colour images to grayscale images. After that, contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is implemented on images to enhance the contrast of images. In face detection stage, enhanced local binary pattern (LBP) and principal component analysis (PCA) is applied correspondingly in order to extract the features from facial images. In our proposed approach, the enhanced local binary pattern outperform the original LBP by reducing the illumination effect and increasing the recognition rate. Next, the features extracted from the test images are compared with the features extracted from the training images. The facial images are then classified and recognized based on the best result obtained from the combination of algorithm, enhanced LBP and PCA. Finally, the attendance of the recognized student will be marked and saved in the excel file. The student who is not registered will also be able to register on the spot and notification will be given if students sign in more than once. The average accuracy of recognition is 100 % for good quality images, 94.12 % of low-quality images and 95.76 % for Yale face database when two images per person are trained.

The main objective of this project is to develop face detection attendance system for Plateau state university students. In order to achieve better performance, the test images and training images of this proposed approach are limited to frontal and upright facial images that consist of a single face only. The test images and training images have to be captured by using the same device to ensure no quality difference. In addition, the students have to register in the database to be recognized. The enrolment can be done on the spot through the user-friendly interface.

1.1 Background
Face detection is crucial in daily life in order to identify family, friends or someone we are familiar with. We might not perceive that several steps have actually taken in order to identify human faces. Human intelligence allows us to receive information and interpret the information in the recognition process. We receive information through the image projected into our eyes, by specifically retina in the form of light. Light is a form of electromagnetic waves which are radiated from a source onto an object and projected to human vision. Robinson-Riegler, G., & Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008) mentioned that after visual processing done by the human visual system, we actually classify shape, size, contour and the texture of the object in order to analyse the information. The analysed information will be compared to other representations of objects or face that exist in our memory to recognize. In fact, it is a hard challenge to build an automated system to have the same capability as a human to recognize faces. However, we need large memory to recognize different faces, for example, in the Universities, there are a lot of students with different race and gender, it is impossible to remember every face of the individual without making mistakes. In order to overcome human limitations, computers with almost limitless memory, high processing speed and power are used in face detection systems.

The human face is a unique representation of individual identity. Thus, face detection is defined as a biometric method in which identification of an individual is performed by comparing real-time capture image with stored images in the database of that person (Margaret Rouse, 2012).

Nowadays, face detection system is prevalent due to its simplicity and awesome performance. For instance, airport protection systems and FBI use face detection for criminal investigations by tracking suspects, missing children and drug activities (Robert Silk, 2017). Apart from that, Facebook which is a popular social networking website implement face detection to allow the users to tag their friends in the photo for entertainment purposes (Sidney Fussell, 2018). Furthermore, Intel Company allows the users to use face detection to get access to their online account (Reichert, C., 2017). Apple allows the users to unlock their mobile phone, iPhone X by using face detection (deAgonia, M., 2017).

The work on face detection began in 1960. Woody Bledsoe, Helen Chan Wolf and Charles Bisson had introduced a system which required the administrator to locate eyes, ears, nose and mouth from images. The distance and ratios between the located features and the common reference points are then calculated and compared. The studies are further enhanced by Goldstein, Harmon, and Lesk in 1970 by using other features such as hair colour and lip thickness to automate the recognition. In 1988, Kirby and Sirovich first suggested principle component analysis (PCA) to solve face detection problem. Many studies on face detection were then conducted continuously until today (Ashley DuVal, 2012).

1.2 Problem Statement
Traditional student attendance marking technique is often facing a lot of trouble. The face detection student attendance system emphasizes its simplicity by eliminating classical student attendance marking technique such as calling student names or checking respective identification cards. There are not only disturbing the teaching process but also causes distraction for students during exam sessions. Apart from calling names, attendance sheet is passed around the classroom during the lecture sessions. The lecture class especially the class with a large number of students might find it difficult to have the attendance sheet being passed around the class. Thus, face detection student attendance system is proposed in order to replace the manual signing of the presence of students which are burdensome and causes students get distracted in order to sign for their attendance. Furthermore, the face detection attendance system for Plateau state university students able to overcome the problem of fraudulent approach and lecturers does not have to count the number of students several times to ensure the presence of the students.

The paper proposed by Zhao, W et al. (2003) has listed the difficulties of facial identification. One of the difficulties of facial identification is the identification between known and unknown images. In addition, paper proposed by Pooja G.R et al. (2010) found out that the training process for face detection student attendance system is slow and time-consuming. In addition, the paper proposed by Priyanka Waghet al. (2015) mentioned that different lighting and head poses are often the problems that could degrade the performance of face detection based student attendance system.

Hence, there is a need to develop a real time operating student attendance system which means the identification process must be done within defined time constraints to prevent omission. The extracted features from facial images which represent the identity of the students have to be consistent towards a change in background, illumination, pose and expression. High accuracy and fast computation time will be the evaluation points of the performance.

1.3 Aims and Objectives
The objective of this project is to develop face detection attendance system for Plateau state university students. Expected achievements in order to fulfill the objectives are:

• To detect the face segment from the video frame.

• To extract the useful features from the face detected.

• To classify the features in order to recognize the face detected. To record the attendance of the identified student.

1.4 Scope of the study
This study is carried out on the face detection attendance system. The scope of the study is the Plateau state university students.

1.5 Thesis Organization
Chapter 2 includes a brief review of the approaches and studies that have been done previously by other researchers whereas Chapter 3 describe proposed methods and approaches used to obtain the desired output. The results of the proposed approach would be presented and discussed in Chapter 4. The conclusion, as well as some recommendations would be included in Chapter 5.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 72 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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