CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING PROGRAMME IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF OTHAYA DIVISION, NYERI DISTRICT, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Guidance and counselling is an integral part of the education system in Kenya. Secondary schools have implemented guidance and counselling programme as a government policy requirement. The programme is meant to prevent students’ maladjustment, lead to development of human potential, assist individual to self-actualization and simultaneously benefit the society. The purpose of this study was to investigate challenges encountered in the implementation of guidance and counselling programme in public secondary schools in Othaya Division. Descriptive survey design was utilised in the study. The target population was 4600 Form 3 and 4 students in 30 public secondary schools. A sample of 15 public secondary schools was obtained using stratified sampling technique to cater for the different categories of schools. A sample of 15 principals and 15 teacher counsellors was purposefully selected from the selected schools while 148 students were proportionately and randomly sampled. Three different types of questionnaires, for the principals, teacher counsellors and students were used to collect data after piloting them to ascertain their validity and reliability. The co-efficient alpha formula was used to determine the reliability of instruments. Reliabilities of 0.72, 0.71 and 0.75 were obtained from the principals, teacher counsellors and students questionnaires respectively. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer programme was used to compute the data collected. The major findings were that guidance and counselling is offered in all public secondary schools, teacher counsellors lack professional qualification, there is inadequate provision of resources and there is over emphasis of cognitive aspect at the expense of affective aspects of development in school guidance and counselling. The study recommends that the programme be strengthened through training of teacher counsellors, provision of sufficient facilities, allocation of time for counselling and also involvement of parents in the programme. It is hoped that the study findings and recommended solutions will help improve service delivery in guidance and counselling programme in Othaya Division.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Guidance and counselling started in the United States of America between 1890 and 1900 during the great depression, it was geared towards addressing unemployment and matching workers to jobs(Barwick,2000).Gradually, guidance and counselling movement has developed into an organised service making significant contribution to the development of society(Makinde,1984).Modern forms of guidance and counselling in Africa date back to 1959 in Nigeria where formal career guidance was organised for senior students with emphasis on vocational awareness of the world of work(Makinde,1984). In Kenya, guidance and counselling has been taken as an important component of education offered in schools. Republic of Kenya(1964) recommended provision of career guidance to all students. Subsequent government reports have emphasized the need for effective guidance and counselling for all students. The age of a secondary school student is within the period of growth known as adolescence. At this stage, the students respond to their own world influenced by their physical development. Adolescents can be easily provoked because whatever an adult does to them, they take it as an attempt to reduce their personality to that of a child. It is this behaviour that leads to assaults and insults in schools or even demonstrations and riots (Ezewu, 1992). Thus there is a great need for guidance and counselling in secondary schools to ensure that students mature steadily towards personal development and self-actualisation.

According to Bennars and Otiende (1994) the need for guidance and counselling is twofold. First, to help students adapt to various changes this may be social, political, educational, economical, vocational and psychological. All such changes have taken place in our country in recent years and many are still going on. With such changes, problems arise and coping with daily living becomes difficult for both individuals and the society. In view of this, a great need exists for expert counselling services that can assist individuals to effectively solve their own problems and cope with difficult situations without falling apart. Secondly to help them adapt themselves to individual differences. In reference to individual differences, there exists a need for guidance and counselling to assist each unique individual in order to fully develop his/her own potential and utilise his/her abilities to the maximum.

Republic of Kenya (1976) posited that the main problem that confronted the youth in Kenyan education system was unemployment. The graduating youth over matched the job opportunities leading to human capital wastage. The Report emphasised the need for a functional and effective guidance and counselling programme.

In 1971, the guidance and counselling programme was formally structured and a special unit set up in the Ministry of Education to organise, administer, and supervise the programme under the school inspectorate section. Republic of Kenya(1999) regrettably noted that guidance and counselling unit that used to be vibrant was no longer as effective as it used to be because most of the professionally qualified personnel had retired or had been deployed to other institutions. The Report indicated that institutions and field staff had nowhere to seek necessary advice to help them carry out guidance and counselling programmes effectively. It observed that a large number of learners in education and training institutions were in dire need of guidance and counselling. The Commission pointed out that in view of the increases in antisocial behaviour, there was an urgent need to have adequate and professionally trained staff to handle guidance and counselling in education and training institutions throughout the country. It recommended that a national programme be instituted for the professional training of teachers to handle guidance and counselling and that it be offered by professionally trained mature staff. The Vice Chancellors Committee Report on causes of disturbances/riots in universities (Republic of Kenya, 2000) stated that lack of guidance and counselling in development and growth of pupils in schools leads to students problems in universities and this is one of the causes of riots in these institutions.

Kilonzo (1980) opined that guidance and counselling services are limited only to Form four students and only in third term. He adds that lack of career and psychological counselling was attributed to the fact that the teacher counsellor felt incompetent to handle psychological problems. Most schools have a tendency to take guidance and counselling as an avenue for restoring delinquent students. Every student needs to learn about their assets and limitations and to make a variety of adjustments based upon knowing themselves. Detjen (1963) emphasises that guidance and counselling services should be for all students, not for the emotionally disturbed or those with behaviour problems. Republic of Kenya (1968) pointed out that some schools tended to overemphasise the cognitive aspect of education at the expense of the affective aspects relating to development of desirable characters and values.

Mutie and Ndambuki (1999) observed that the success in implementation of guidance and counselling programmes is hampered by lack of trained manpower, reference books and funds to organise, implement and sustain the programmes. The role-played by guidance and counselling in making a well-adjusted person cannot be underrated. The challenges encountered in implementation of the programme must be identified and adequately addressed if not completely eradicated.

Statement of the Problem
Despite the establishment of guidance and counselling department in all schools and appointment of teacher counsellors, the problem of students’ indiscipline and riots has persisted. This study sought to investigate the challenges faced in implementation of guidance and counselling programme in Othaya Division where eight out of thirty public secondary schools experienced unrest in year 2008.This clearly showed that guidance and counselling implementation was encountering some challenges hence the need to identify and eradicate them.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the challenges encountered in implementation of guidance and counselling programme in public secondary schools in Othaya Division.

Objectives of the Study
i) To determine whether the teacher counsellors have the necessary professional training in guidance and counselling in public secondary schools in Othaya Division.

ii) To determine if adequate resources are available for guidance and counselling programme in public secondary schools in Othaya Division.

iii) To determine the content of guidance and counselling services offered in public secondary schools in Othaya Division.

iv) To find out if the students are aware of guidance and counselling services offered in public secondary schools in Othaya Division.

v) To find out if confidentiality is observed in providing guidance and counselling services in public secondary schools in Othaya Division.

Research Questions
i) What is the level 0f teacher counsellor professional training in public secondary schools in Othaya Division?

ii) Are there enough resources allocated for guidance and counselling programme in public secondary schools in Othaya Division?

iii) What is the content of guidance and counselling services offered in public secondary schools in Othaya Division?

iv) Are the students aware of guidance and counselling services offered in public secondary schools in Othaya Division?

v) Is confidentiality observed in guidance and counselling programme in public secondary schools in Othaya Division?

Significance of the Study
The study findings may provide useful information to the Ministry of Education. Teachers’ Service Commission, principals, teacher counsellors, students and other policy makers on the challenges encountered in implementation of guidance and counselling programme and has suggested ways of improving the programme in order to achieve its objectives.
The Scope of the Study

This study was conducted in Othaya Division. It was directed to identifying challenges encountered in implementation of guidance and counselling programme in public secondary schools. The study targeted Form 3 and Form 4 students in public secondary schools, principals and teacher counsellors. The teacher counsellors are responsible of planning and implementing the guidance and counselling programme and are therefore aware of the challenges encountered in the process. The Form 3 and 4 students identified the challenges faced in accessing the guidance and counselling services as they have more information than the rest of the students.

Assumptions of the Study
i) The principals, teacher counsellors, and students participating in the research gave reliable information in filling the questionnaires.

ii) That the counsellor’s attitude, personality and motivation do not affect the implementation of guidance and counselling.

iii) Guidance and counselling programme faces challenges in its implementation.

Limitation of the Study
The study was carried out in Othaya Division public secondary schools, hence the results may be generalised to all public schools only with caution.

Some of the respondents may not have given honest answers. However informed consent was given and confidentiality assured to encourage honesty.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 40 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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