A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING KENYA CERTIFICATE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN KAPTAGAT WARD, UASIN GISHU COUNTY

ABSTRACT
The United Nation Declaration on human rights article 26(1984) and Sustainable Development Goals state that every child is entitled to quality free and compulsory primary education. Private primary schools in Kenya have continued to post exceedingly excellent performance in KCPE examination compared to public schools. Private schools in Kaptagat Ward of Eldoret East sub- county have also over the years registered excellent performance in KCPE examinations when compared with public schools. The purpose of this study was to establish influence the influence of supervisory techniques on KCPE performance in public and private primary schools in Kaptagat Ward. The objectives of the study were to; determine how supervisory technique, teaching and learning resources, instructional practices and teacher’s characteristics influence KCPE performance in private and public schools in Kaptagat Ward. It was assumed that respondents voluntarily gave accurate information. The study was carried out in Kaptagat Ward of Eldoret east sub county, Uasin Gishu County. Open Systems theory guided the study. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The instruments used in the study were questionnaires, and interviews schedules. The questionnaires were administered to 160 teachers (31 private and 129 public). Interview schedules were used to collect information from 17 head teachers (4 private and 13 public). Simple random sampling and purposive sampling were used to select the sample. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages were used. Inferential statistics used was t-test. The private school performance scores vary much more than public school scores. There was a significant difference between public and private schools performance for the years 2009-2013. Results showed that school status variation really does have an effect on the KCPE performance. There was significant influence in supervisory techniques, teaching and learning resources instruction practices and teacher characteristics on KCPE performance private school and public school. The head teachers should consult stakeholders before making certain decisions in order to improve instructional supervision. The head teachers should do random inspection by asking pupils how they are being taught and use exam results to measure teacher’s performance. There was no electricity in public schools compared to private schools. Thus the government should connect electricity to every school to provide opportunity for remedial studies in the evenings and weekends. In public schools there were no meals for pupils and teachers as compared to private schools. The MOEST should ensure that the school feeding programme is enhanced and sustained to reduce the time wastage during lunch break.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
The United Nation Convention on rights of the child (UNCRC) Article 26(1984) and millennium Development Goals no. 2, states that every child is entitled to quality, free and compulsory Primary Education (UNESCO, 2007). In United States, basic education is free and compulsory. Most African countries, including, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Malawi have also introduced free and compulsory primary education for all (Achieng, Akech and Simatwa, 2010). In Uganda free primary education was introduced by president Museveni in 1996 as a pledge to his presidential campaign promise (Bagunywa, 2006). The children Act (2001) number 8 creates a Kenyan law that provides similar provision as the United Nations and state that every child has a right to free and compulsory basic education. It is with these reasons, that the Kenyan government introduced free and compulsory Primary education in 2003 for all children of school going age. The Sessional paper No. 14 of 2012 on teaching, also asserts that every child aged between 4 and 17 years should not only attend school, but also receive quality education (Sessional paper 2012).

Much effort has been put in place by United States, Australia and most African countries to provide free and compulsory basic education. However, the academic performance in public or state schools has been poor compared to privately owned schools. According to study by Murname (2011), there is an indication that catholic and non-catholic private schools were more effective than public schools in academic performance in United States. The difference in academic performance between state and private schools in United States is attributed to socio- Economic status which is also linked to family structure. Considine and Zappala (2002) argue that students from independent private schools in Australia are more likely to achieve higher end of school scores and thus private schools are more likely to have a greater number of students from higher socio- economic status because they have greater financial resources.

According to Okyerefo (2011), there is an ever increasing poor performance in most public schools in Ghana. The study revealed that private schools performance was better due to more effective supervision of work. The same scenario was witnessed in other African countries, especially in Uganda after the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) (Bagunywa, 2006).

According to Gitogo (2006), the government of Kenya since independence has not been in a position to offer educational opportunities to all deserving Kenyans. Bongonko (1994) argues that, the Fraser report of 1909, proposed separate education system for African children (category A), Asian children (category B), European children (category C). The report was adopted and the three categories of schools were inherited from the colonial government at independence. Category C Schools were patronized by children from upper and middle class Kenyans. These schools had the best learning facilities, small class sizes and most qualified teachers. These made them perform well in National Examinations and as a result were popular with those who could afford their high fee. The number of middle class Kenyans and upper class increased and the demand for such quality schools outstripped their availability (Bongonko, 1994).

According to Machio (2013), academic performance in private schools, especially in Kenya certificate of Primary Education has been on the upward trend since 2003, while academic performance in public schools has been either stagnating below average or deteriorating with time. Research has shown that better Physical facilities and provision of adequate learning materials like textbooks is Key to improving academic performance. There has been an increase in the number of private schools in Eldoret East Sub County since 2003. For instance only 3 private primary school registered candidates for KCPE examination in 2008, which rose to 11 in 2013 (an increase of 266 percent). These private schools have since outperformed public schools in academic performance as reflected in the subsequent Tables.

For this reason one logically may argue that there are aspects about private and public schools that cause the former to perform compared to the latter. Table 1 shows the ranking of top ten best performing schools in KCPE nationally from 2011 to 2013. This showed that all the school ranked top ten in the three years were only private schools. This indicates that performance of private schools is higher compared to public schools.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 107 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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