RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME AND DAIRY CATTLE PRODUCTION AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN HOMA BAY AND NDHIWA SUB-COUNTIES

ABSTRACT
Since independence Kenya has relied on the agriculture sector which includes livestock as a base for economic growth. Livestock Development Programme (LDP) was a Finnish programme that was initiated in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties in 1991-2003 to address constraints in dairy cattle production. Its ultimate goal was to raise milk production and improve small scale dairy cattle farmers’ levels of living. A study to determine the extent of relationship between the LDP programme’s packages: upgrading of Zebu cows, fodder production and disease control may not have been done. The research determined the extent of relationship between the packages and dairy cattle production in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive and correlation design. Study locations were selected purposively because they implemented the programme. Target population was all dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties while accessible population was 1044 LDP dairy cattle farmers who implemented the programme. Sample size was 151 small scale dairy cattle farmers and 12 extension agents from Department of Livestock Production. Respondents were selected through proportionate then random sampling. Interview schedules and questionnaires were applied while reliability was ascertained by use of Cronbach’s alpha whose obtained coefficient value was 0.7. Data collected has hopefully added to existing knowledge in dairy cattle production in the study area and in Kenya. The data was gathered from LDP dairy cattle farmers and Department of Livestock Programme extension agents in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties through face to face interview. It was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression that was measured at 95% of confidence interval. There was a significant relationship between upgrading of Zebu dairy cows that was measured by number of crosses and run against daily milk yield and current income from milk. There was a significant relationship when fodder production practices measured by acreage allocated for fodder production and number of varieties grown were run against daily milk yield and current income from milk. There was a significant relationship between disease control practices measured by regularity in disease control, adoption of disease control that were run against daily milk yield and current income from milk. These findings indicated that respondents adopted LDP packages and income from dairy cattle production increased. They were able to take their children to school, improve their housing structures and dairy units. Department of Livestock Production should continue sensitizing dairy cattle farmers to enhance productivity in the study area.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Dairy cattle production in most parts of the world started with small scale traditional cattle rearing in the rural areas with an aim of producing milk to feed the family and neighbours. As the herd increased in size production also increased leading to surplus milk which had to find a market in the urban areas (Bee, Musanga & Kavana, 2006). Since independence, Kenya has relied heavily on the agricultural sector which includes Livestock production as the base for economic growth, employment creation and generation of foreign exchange. About 70% of the country’s population lives in the rural areas and depends on agriculture and livestock production for livelihood (Government of Kenya (GoK), 2010; 2004; Njugiri, 2007 & Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MoLFD), 2007). The sector provides food and cash needs of farmers, provides employment to about 10 million people, and contributes ten percent to GDP through sales of milk, milk products, small stock like sheep, goats, chicken and eggs (GoK, 2010; Gangadhar, Satyanarayan & Veeranna, 2009). Kenya is one of the largest producers of dairy products in Africa with about 3.5 million improved dairy cattle, 9 million zebu, 900,000 camels and 12 million goats (GoK, 2007; Ministry of Planning and Finance, 2010 and Omore, McDermontt, Muriuki & Thorpe, 2009). Dairy industry in Kenya is relatively more developed compared to dairy industries in other countries (Muriuki, 2009) and its in view of this that implementation of Vision 2030 is expected to increase income from agriculture, livestock and fisheries production for development and consequent transformation of Kenya into a medium-income country that provides a high quality life to all its citizens (GoK, 2007).

According to the Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture (SRA) (GoK, 2004), Kenya’s ability to exploit fully its potential in livestock production is hampered by diseases such as East Coast Fever and Trypanosomiasis through reduction in returns from livestock production industry. On-farm milk productivity has remained low because of poor animal husbandry, low quality feeds, inadequate and inefficient breeding services and ineffective disease control (MoLFD, 2006). In the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for former Homa Bay district (GoK, 2001) current Homa Bay sub-county, improving productivity of livestock systems was expected to result in employment creation and a significant contribution to poverty reduction in the country. According to Homa Bay sub- county Development Plan GoK (2002), the Kenyan Government planned to develop livestock industry further through enforcing a new National policy to control livestock diseases through enhanced surveillance, vaccinations and controlled movement of animals from neighbouring countries. Dairy animals reared in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties are crosses of Ayshires, Jersey and Friesians. Zebu dairy cows and their crosses with European breeds are also reared.

Livestock Development Programme (LDP) was initiated in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub- counties and implemented in the following phases; 1991-1994, phase 1; 1995-1997, phase 2; 1998- 2002 phase 3 and the phasing out period was from 2002 to 2003 (Ministries of Foreign Affairs Finland, Finance, Agriculture & Livestock Production, Cooperative Development and Finnish Cooperative Centre, 2003). It was funded by the Finnish and Kenyan Governments and implemented the following packages: Upgrading Zebu dairy cows, fodder production and disease control practices. The programme was implemented in the whole former Nyanza province. Through simple random sampling, Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties were picked for the research to represent the province. The researcher was interested in determining the extent of relationship between LDP packages and current dairy cattle production in the study area. Available literature from Department of Livestock Production annual report (Ministry of Livestock Development (MoLD), 2008), indicated that no study may have been carried out in the study area to find out the extent of relationship between LDP programme packages and dairy cattle production. The programme was expected to address low genetic potential for Zebu dairy cows, high disease incidences, poor nutrition and low level of dairy management. Under upgrading of Zebu dairy cows package, farmers upgraded their Zebu dairy cows with breeds such as Ayshire, Friesian and their crosses through use of exotic bulls and artificial insemination. On fodder production, LDP farmers were trained on diversification in fodder production, improved management with emphasis on manure application and fodder preservation. Respondents were also trained on disease control practices such as spraying and deworming routines. Target groups were small scale dairy cattle farmers with emphasis on women since the programme focused on improving their socio-economic status and most activities in dairy cattle production are done by women.

Statement of the Problem
Livestock development programme was initiated to address constraints in dairy cattle production among small scale farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties in 1991 and phased out in 2003. The ultimate goal was to raise milk production and improve levels of living of the dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties. A study to assess the extent of relationship between LDP programme packages and dairy cattle production may not have been carried out. This study determined the extent of relationship between LDP packages and dairy cattle production in the study area.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of relationship between LDP programme packages and dairy cattle production among small scale farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties.

Objectives of the Study
The objectives were to determine the extent of relationship between:

i. Upgrading of Zebu dairy cows and current dairy cattle production among LDP small scale dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties

ii. Fodder production practices and current dairy cattle production among LDP small scale dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties

iii. Livestock disease control practices and current dairy cattle production among LDP small scale dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties

Hypotheses of the study
H01. There is no statistically significant relationship between upgrading of Zebu dairy cows and current dairy cattle production among LDP small scale dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties

H02. There is no statistically significant relationship between fodder production practices and current dairy cattle production among LDP small scale dairy cattle farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties

H03. There is no statistically significant relationship between disease control practices and current dairy cattle production among LDP small scale farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties

Significance of the Study
Livestock production is important in Kenya’s economy. It’s a source of employment, food and cash to Kenyans and contributes ten percent to gross domestic product (GDP) through proceeds from milk and its products. Livestock production meets socio-cultural roles for Kenyans. Data generated will add to existing knowledge and literature on dairy production in the study sub-counties and in Kenya. It will contribute to investment decisions by the Government of Kenya and her development partners in livestock production. The findings will also give a feed back to policy makers on dairy cattle production and serve as a reference for new programmes in livestock production. Department of Livestock Production will use these results to come up with a policy on dairy cattle production in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties.

Scope of the Study
This study focused on extent of relationship between LDP programme packages and dairy cattle production among small scale farmers in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub- counties. It was carried out in Asego and Rangwe divisions in Homa Bay sub-county, Riana, Ndhiwa and Nyarongi divisions in Ndhiwa sub-county. The study was carried out in the two sub- counties because they experience same climatic conditions, have similar livelihoods like other sub-counties in the former Nyanza Province.

Assumption of the Study
The researcher assumed that respondents would recall activities they carried out during LDP programme implementation and after the programme completion.

Limitation of the Study
LDP Programme was implemented in former Nyanza, Western and Rift Valley provinces. Due to similarities in climatic conditions, the study was carried out in Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties in former Nyanza province. Data collected can only be generalized to Homa Bay and Ndhiwa sub-counties.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 68 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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