RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FISH FARMING ENTERPRISE PRODUCTIVITY TRAINING PROGRAMME AND ADOPTION OF INLAND-BASED POND FISH FARMING IN MERU SOUTH SUB-COUNTY, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Inland-based fish farming in Kenya continues to draw enormous financial support by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development under the Economic Stimulus Programme. The Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Programme (FFEPP) entails the production of fish in a managed environment in marine and freshwater systems for food and commercial purposes. In-land based pond fish farming has been hampered by low level of fish farming, abandonment of ponds, and inadequate training and extension services. Fish farmers in Meru South Sub-County have been slow in adopting inland- based pond fish farming despite the Kenya Government‟s efforts to promote fish farming through training. This study investigated the relationship between Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Training Programme (FFEPTP) and adoption of inland-based pond fish farming in Meru South Sub-County, Kenya. The study employed survey design that targeted 400 pond fish farmers who had undergone FFEP training programme excluding those that abandoned their ponds, 22 extension officers and three ward fisheries officers. Purposive and stratified sampling was used to select the respondents. The total sample was 237 respondents comprising 212 farmers, 22 extension officers and three ward officers. The instruments for data collection were; a researcher administered questionnaire for farmers, and a self-administered questionnaire for fisheries and extension officers. Instruments were piloted in Maara Sub County with a sample of 24 respondents comprising of 21 farmers, two extension officers and one sub county fisheries officer. Face, construct and content validity of the research instruments were ascertained by a panel of experts in Agricultural Education. Cronbach‟s Alpha Coefficient was used to estimate the reliability of the questionnaires. A reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.70 for farmers and extension agents and fisheries officers‟ questionnaires were obtained. Data obtained was cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Both descriptive statistics involving frequencies and means, and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The relationship between training and adoption of pond fish farming was assessed using relationship DID. The findings show that there was an increase in adoption rate of pond construction of 63.66 percent after training. This implies that FFEPTP had a positive impact on pond fish farming as evidenced by the significant number of ponds constructed after training. The study recommends that extension agents and ward fisheries officers should be proactive in providing farmers with technical support needed for pond establishment, fish production, marketing and harvesting.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Millions of people all over the world depend on fish for their livelihoods (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2012). Fish is a source of protein to over one billion people and a source of food and employment to over 150 million people (FAO, 2012). Today countries world over are exploiting marine resources in what has come to be described as the marine blue economy (Ebarvina (2016). Blue economy deals with water bodies and the economic activities around them including fishing, marine transport, extraction of minerals under the sea, among many others (Wairimu & Khainga, 2017). Indeed, many countries have embraced the benefits of oceans, seas, lakes and rivers and are deploying them to drive economic growth, social progress and protection of the environment.

The United Nations Environment Programme estimates that half of the world‟s population lives within 60km of the sea, and three quarters of all large cities are located along the coast (FAO, 2017). According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO), up to 90 percent of the global trade facilitation by volume is seaborne and up to 70 percent of global trade facilitation by value is by the sea. With growing emphasis on blue economy, most developing countries are embracing this aspect of economic growth. Thus, there is relativism in pond fish farming and blue economy as the adaptation of the later as a practice of inland fish farming draws credence from this paradigm. The potential linkage between the blue economy, sustainable development and economic growth is recognized in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target 14.7 focuses on enhancing the economic benefits to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through the sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture (Griggs, Stafford-Smith, Gaffney, Rockström, Öhman, Shyamsundar & Noble, 2013).

Consumption of fish and sea food products reached 14 kilograms per capital in developing countries in 2010 (Hempel, 2011). According to the FAO (2013), the amount of fish consumed on a global scale has increased from 45 ×109 kg in 2009 to over 9 × 1010 kg in 2013. Over this span, world per capital food fish consumption has also risen from 12kg /year to 16kg/year. China dominated aggregate consumption of fisheries products in 2009, with over 36 percent of global consumption, rising from only 11 percent in 2009. India and South East Asia together accounted for another 17 percent in .2009, with total consumption doubling since 2009.These increases have not been uniform across geographic or economic categories. Grow thin food fish consumption has primarily been a developing country phenomenon. The share of developing country fish consumption has risen from 45 percent in 2009 to 70 percent in 2013, mainly because of the rapid growth in population in these regions (FAO, 2013).

Aquaculture development and growth in Africa have been on low ebb despite the vast aquatic resources that abounds on the continent. Since the introduction of aquaculture to Africa, some decades ago, there have been a lot of innovations, technological advancement and progress in the areas of genetics, seed propagation, pond construction and farm management in general (Gabriel, Akinrotimi, Bekibele, Onunkwo & Anyanwu, 2007). Despite breakthroughs recorded in these areas most farmers in Africa still rely heavily on imported feed ingredients and fish feeds from European countries, which makes fish farming expensive as fish feed account for at least 60% of the total cost of production. This has contributed in no small measure to the slow pace at which aquaculture is advancing in Africa.

Countries in East Africa have hitherto not been left behind in the improvements of their economies leveraging on blue economy. In Uganda for example, a raft of measures are being undertaken to ensure sustainable use of marine resource through extension education. Uganda produces up to 15 000 tonnes of fish from aquaculture, including production from small-scale fish farmers, emerging commercial fish farmers and stocked community water reservoirs and minor lakes. There are an estimated 20 000 ponds throughout the country with an average surface area of 500 m² per pond (FAO, 2017) in the regions of Mayuge, Jinja, Bugiri, Busia, Mukono, Mpigi, Wakiso, Masaka, Rakai, Mbarara, Bushenyi, Ntungamo, Kasese, Hoima, Masindi, Nebbi, Gulu, Adjumani, Arua, Kamuli, Soroti, Lira, Iganga, Tororo, Pallisa, Mbale, Apac, Kabiramaido, Kabarole, Kamwenge and Kyenjojo. Some measures taken by the Ugandan government include better farming techniques, proactive shoreline and wetlands management, and more oversight on fishing. However Leveraging the blue economy for sustainable development and inclusive growth in the Eastern Africa region faces challenges of illegal and unregulated fishing, piracy and maritime terrorism, Other challenges include degradation of marine ecosystems by dumping of toxic waste, destruction of coral reefs and coastal forests. Furthermore, Tanzania and Kenya are confronted with piracy in the Indian Ocean, while disputes on the lucrative Migingo fishing island exist between Kenya and Uganda (Wairimu & Khainga, 2017).

To achieve strong and sustainable economic growth, Kenya is diversifying her sources of growth by prioritizing the blue economy. Fisheries account for only about 0.5 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and generate employment for over two million Kenyans through fishing, boat building, equipment repair, fish processing, and other ancillary activities (Wairimu & Khainga, 2017). Therefore, the full economic potential of marine resources has not been exploited, yet Kenya has a maritime territory of 230,000 square kilometers and a distance of 200 nautical miles offshore. The blue economy has a great potential to contribute to higher and faster GDP growth in Kenya (Ebarvina, 2016). Innovation and growth in the coastal, marine and maritime sector could deliver food, energy, transport, among other products and services and serve as a foundation for sustainable development in Kenya (Government of Kenya, 2009). Diversifying the country‟s economy beyond land-based activities and along its coastal, marine and maritime sector is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and delivering smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This is especially important in the context of the accelerated growth that the country is experiencing without any concomitant reduction in poverty. Furthermore, Kenya has tapped on the blue economy by providing training for fish farmers and carrying out educational campaigns to show the benefits of farmed fish over wild caught fish and to influence adoption of pond fish farming.

In 2009, the Kenyan Government initiated efforts to provide stimulus to the country's economy key of which were major agriculture sector improvement programmes through the Economic Stimulus Programme (ESP) (Government of Kenya, 2009). As a part the effort, the Ministry of Fisheries Development (MoFD) established the Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Programme (FFEPP) in a bid to intensify efforts to equip fish farmers with knowledge and skills on modern fish farming technologies (MoFD, 2010). The Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Programme under the Economic Stimulus Programme is an initiative by the Government of Kenya to expand economic opportunities in rural areas for employment creation (MoFD, 2010). The intervention aim to improve nutrition, create employment and income opportunities. The construction of 200 fish ponds in each of the 140 constituencies was supposed to create 120,000 jobs and benefit more than 290,000 youth, as well as women, farmers, fishers.The programme was implemented in two phases funded by the Government of Kenya. Phase one of the project was funded under the Economic Stimulus Programme, while the second phase was funded under the Economic Recovery, Poverty Alleviation and Regional Development Programme (ERPARDP) (MoFD, 2010). The main objectives of the Project were to increase fish production, enhance food security, improve livelihoods of farmers, and provide employment for the youth (GOK, 2009).

In first phase of the project, KES1.12 billion was allocated for the construction of 28,000 fish ponds in 140 constituencies (GOK, 2009). In the second phase of the project, KES 2.72 billion were allocated for; the construction of additional 200 fish ponds in 20 other constituencies, construction of three shallow wells in each constituency, purchase of pond liners, fingerlings and fish feeds. Further support was provided for the construction of 80 mini fish processing and storage facilities (Republic of Kenya, 2010). In Tharaka Nithi County the Government allocated a total of KES1.2 million for the implementation of ESP in Meru South Sub-County that saw the establishment of 450 ponds (GOK, 2009). Under this framework, 200 farmers were selected and trained in 2010. The training focused on fish farming in Kenya, planning, design, construction, site selection, pond preparation, soil structure, pond size, depth and slope, stocking ponds, health, disease, predators, prevention, treatment, harvesting and marketing. The aim was to enhance farmers‟ competencies to facilitate the uptake of pond fish farming. Despite undergoing training, adoption of pond fish farming in Meru South Sub-County continues to be low.

A baseline survey conducted in year 2012 after the introduction of pond fish farming by Meru South Sub County Fisheries Department to establish the farmers‟ extent of adoption of the new technology of pond fish farming revealed that out of the 450 ponds that were established in the Sub-County, 270 have since been abandoned leaving only 180 functional. In addition, most of the male farmers had negative perception towards fish farming as it was seen as an activity for women and children. The baseline survey also established that fish was less valued traditionally by the people of Meru South Sub- County because they rarely farmed or ate fish and this was a new experience for them. The implication therefore is that, farmers‟ required advocacy to change their perceptions about fish and enhance their knowledge and skills on pond fish farming. The foregoing suggests that for Kenya to leverage the blue economy for sustainable development and inclusive, thorough feasibility studies need to be conducted to quantify the opportunities of the blue economy and maximize returns from investments in the sector. The findings of these studies would assist in exploring the potential for public- private partnerships in areas such as research, product development, concept development, exchange of intellectual property, and financial and human resources development.

Statement of the Problem
Pond fish farming plays an important role in Kenya‟s national economic development, providing nutrition, employment and even earning foreign currency. The Kenyan Government has made efforts to build the capacity of farmers in pond fish farming through the Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Training Programme. Despite the implementation of FFEPTP in Meru South Sub-County, the adoption of pond fish farming has been low, being characterized by low pond productivity and abandonment of fish ponds. This study therefore sought to investigate the relationship between FFEPTP and adoption of inland-based pond fish farming in Meru South Sub County Kenya.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Training Programme and adoption of inland-based pond fish farming in Meru South Sub County.

Objectives of the Study
This study was guided by the following objectives:

i) To establish the relationship between the demographic characteristics of farmers and adoption of pond fish farming before and after training Meru South Sub County

ii) To determine the relationship between the numbers of ponds constructed before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

iii) To determine the relationship between fish production methods used by farmers before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

iv) To determine the relationship between fish harvesting practices used by farmers before and after undergoing FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

v) To determine the relationship between fish marketing strategies used by farmers before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested:

H01 There is no statistically significant relationship between the demographic characteristics and adoption of pond fish farming before and after training in Meru South Sub county.

H02 There is no statistically significant relationship between the number of ponds constructed by farmers before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

H0 3 There is no statistically significant relationship between fish production methods used by farmers before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County

H04 There is no statistically significant relationship between fish harvesting practices used by the farmers before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

H05 There is no statistically significant relationship between fish marketing strategies used by farmers before and after FFEPTP training in Meru South Sub County.

Significance of the Study
The findings generated by this study may be utilized by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development in re-designing education programmes focusing on farmers regarding methods to enhance uptake of pond fish farming; this will have a multiplier effect in lowering the abandonment of ponds. Further, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development may use the findings to develop an improved curriculum for training pond fish farmers and finally increasing fish production. The findings of this study would also enable the Government to allocate enough funds to the Department of Fisheries to enable it provide adequate capacity building to the farmers through education services and fish training programmes under the ESP as well as illuminating on areas that need improvement to make ESP realize its objectives of creating more employment and food security as envisaged in vision 2030 broad aims.

Scope of the Study
This study was limited in scope to pond fish farmers in Meru South Sub County. The study collected data to assess the relationship between of FFEPP training programme and farmers‟ adoption of inland-based pond fish farming. The study tested whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the number of ponds constructed, fish production methods and harvesting practices used by the farmers before and after FFEPTP training as well as marketing strategies used by farmers before and after FFEPTP training. The study involved Extension and Sub County Fisheries Officers. Fish Farming Enterprise Productivity Programme (FFEPP) was considered for the study as it was the most publicized and rolled out under the ESP to enable the government to realize its objectives of Kenya Vision 2030.

Limitations of the Study
Some respondents were almost reluctant to give information fearing that the information asked would have been used to paint a negative image about how they were adopting pond fish farming technologies. The researcher visited the farmers and explained the purpose of the study and assured the respondents of confidentiality of the information they gave. There was a problem in reaching some farms due to poor means of transport and communication. This was overcome by using a motorcycle that facilitated movement in the study area.

Assumptions of the Study
The study was based on the assumptions that:

i) The respondents would cooperative and would provide the required information.

ii) The respondents possessed adequate memory of what was learnt during the training since this was done in the year 2010.

For more Agricultural Education Projects Click here
===================================================================
Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 90 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
===================================================================

Share:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts