INFLUENCE OF MENTORING ON YOUTH EMPOWERMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NJORO SUB-COUNTY, NAKURU COUNTY

ABSTRACT
Youth in Kenya constitute approximately two thirds of the total population. They continue to face various challenges ranging from unemployment; societal negative perceptions; malnutrition; drugs and substance abuse; inadequate or non existence of youth friendly health facilities; peer pressure and lack of involvement in decision making in various positions. This has called for use of youth development approach interventions to ensure youth empowerment. Such interventions include talent nurturing programs, revival of youth polytechnics, entrepreneurship trainings; youth enterprise development fund program and youth mentoring programmes. In Kenya, mentoring is a relatively new concept with little being documented about it. However, studies done in developed countries have shown that mentoring has resulted to youth empowerment. Therefore, the study sought to find out the influence of mentoring on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County. The study was guided by the social learning theory. A descriptive survey research design was carried out in purposively selected seven secondary schools with mentoring programmes and total population of 3238 youths. A sample size of 107 youths was randomly selected and fifteen (15) teachers who are in charge of the mentoring programmes in the seven schools were also selected. Proportionate sampling was used to ensure both male and female participants were included in the study. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer programme. Descriptive statistics including percentages and frequencies were used while Chi-square test of independence and probit regression was applied to test the hypotheses at 0.05 confidence level. Results indicated that religious institutions, NGOs, institutions like universities, banks and government ministries were involved in mentoring youths in secondary schools; youth were engaged in more than one type of mentoring relationship; traditional, peer, group, team and flash mentoring relationships were associated with youth empowerment. Further, youth perception on mentoring programmes influenced youth empowerment. Content of mentoring programmes such as drugs, self awareness and career development resulted to youth empowerment. The study concludes that mentoring influences youth empowerment in secondary schools. The study therefore recommends policy interventions that would ensure mentoring programmes are part of the school programme as this would ensure allocation of resources to mentoring programmes.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Youths in the world, who constitute over 60% of the total population have been facing various challenges, ranging from unemployment; societal negative perceptions such as labeling them as source of society’s problems rather than potential for development; malnutrition; drugs and substance abuse; inadequate or non existence of youth friendly health facilities; peer pressure; lack of technical and marketable skills; inadequate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) centers; repressive socio- religious norms (imposed on young females in particular); early marriage; unwanted pregnancies and lack of involvement in decision making in various positions (Olaleye, 2010; MOYAS, 2009; Commonwealth Youth Programme, 2007). These challenges have adverse socio-economic and political consequences on youth development and consequently on national development (Ministry of Youth Affairs, 2006).

One approach that has been used to improve the well being of the youth is Youth Development (YD). Youth Development means purposefully seeking to meet youth needs and to build relevant youth competencies to enable them to become successful adults. Rather than seeing young people as problems, this development approach views them instead as a resource and builds on their strengths and capabilities to develop within their own communities. According to United Nation Development Program (UNDP) and the now defunct Ministry of State Planning and National Development (MSPND), (2010) Youth Development Index (YDI) based on indicators from Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been used to measure the well being of young people. The YDI ranges between 0 and 1 where 0 is the poorest and 1 is the best. The YDI in Kenya is 0.5817 indicating that the development among the youths in Kenya is in the average point mark. This is an indication that a large group of the youths in Kenya are still potentially at risk of engaging in harmful antisocial behaviors such as crime, drug and substance abuse and irresponsible sexual behaviors.

Youth Development approach focuses on building competencies in areas of physical, social, cognitive, vocational, and moral development among youths to enhance their attitudes, behavior and skills (Lerner, Brittian & Kristein, 2006). Youth development can be achieved through involvement of youths in youth development programs which includes talent nurturing programs, revival of youth polytechnics and youth empowerment programs.

Youth empowerment includes creating and supporting the enabling conditions under which young people can act on their own behalf, and on their own terms, rather than at the direction of others (Commonwealth Youth Programme, 2007). These enabling conditions fall into categories such as economic and social base; political will; access to knowledge, information and skills; adequate resource allocation and supportive legal and administrative frameworks; a stable environment of equality, peace democracy and positive value system (African Union, 2011). A study done in Nigeria on youth empowerment revealed that there is a significant relationship between youth empowerment and attitude to crime involvement (Olaleye, 2010). Governments, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), religious organizations, parents, guardians, and elders have the responsibility to empower youths around them in order to jointly realize the socio- economic transformation of communities (Oladele, 2003). Various activities that focus on youth empowerment in order to improve the livelihoods of youths in Kenya ensure provision of skills training and capacity building. Such activities include Kazi Kwa Vijana, entrepreneurship trainings, youth empowerment centers, youth enterprise development fund and youth mentoring programmes.

Youth mentoring programmes focus on impacting on the youths in a positive way by helping them develop their potential (British Council, 2008). According to Triple Creek Associates (2007), mentoring is a personal enhancement strategy through which one person facilitates the development of the other by sharing known resources, expertise, values, skills, perspectives and attitudes to build one’s skills and knowledge for personal development. Mentoring could be formal or informal and this could take place in form of the various mentoring relationships such as the traditional one-to-one mentoring, peer mentoring, group mentoring, e-mentoring and team mentoring (National Mentoring Partnership, 2005; Plamondon, 2007 ).

In the world today, especially in the developed countries, mentoring has become a feasible and popular strategy for supporting the development of youths (National Mentoring Partnership, 2005). Mentors have provided expertise to less experienced individuals to help them advance their careers, enhance their education, and build their networks. Mentoring has resulted to social, economic and identity development of individuals who have been part of mentoring relationships (Keller, 2005; Larson, 2000). Young persons who lack a strong relationship with a caring adult while growing up are much more vulnerable to a host of difficulties, ranging from academic failure to involvement in serious risk behaviors (Cavell, DuBois, Karcher, Keller, & Rhodes, 2009). Research further suggests that mentors who are able to develop close, supportive relationships with youth are able to make the most positive changes in youth’s lives (Grossman & Johnson, 1999).

In Africa, mentoring is a new strategy with various youth mentoring programmes being established by governments, Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) to help develop youths. For instance, East African Community Youth Organization has developed a mentoring programme whose aim is to change the minds of the youths with a view of providing appropriate methods of resolving conflict, restoring peace and effect behavioral change (East African Community ( EAC) Secretariat, 2010).

In Kenya, youth mentoring programmes have been established by the government through the now defunct Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MOYAS) and Ministry of Education (MoE), FBOs, NGOs, Private Companies and CBOs. In Njoro Sub-County, youth mentoring programmes have been established in secondary schools as one of the intervening strategies to address the challenges of the youths in the Sub-County. However, the extent to which the mentoring programmes influence youth empowerment is unknown although studies from developed countries have found positive relationship between mentoring programmes and youth empowerment. This study was thus designed to provide the missing information on this phenomenon.

Statement of the Problem
Youths in Njoro Sub-County, like the rest of Kenya have been facing various challenges ranging from unemployment; drugs and substance abuse; lack of youth friendly health facilities; influence of peer pressure; lack of technical and marketable skills to make them self reliant; lack of access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) centers; to lack of involvement in decision making in various positions (MOYAS, 2009). To address these problems, many approaches have been used including mentoring. Mentoring is a strategy currently established by governments, NGOs and FBOs to help develop the youths positively. While studies in developed countries have revealed that youths in mentoring programmes compared with non-participants have positive development outcomes such as less drug and alcohol use, little is known about the extent to which mentoring influences youth empowerment in Kenya. Thus, the study sought to find out the influence of mentoring on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub- County, Nakuru County.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of mentoring on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

Objectives of the Study
The study was guided by the following objectives:

i. To identify various organizations and institutions involved in mentoring youths in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

ii. To analyse the influence of the type of mentoring relationship on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

iii. To identify the influence of content of mentoring programme on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

iv. To establish the influence of youth perception on mentoring programme on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

v. To describe the challenges faced by mentoring programme in empowering youths in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

Hypotheses of the Study
Objectives 2, 3 and 4 were translated into the following hypotheses:

Ho1: Type of mentoring relationship has no statistically significant influence on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

HO2: Content of mentorship programme has no statistically significant influence on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

HO3: Youth perception on mentoring programme has no statistically significant influence on youth empowerment in secondary schools in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County.

Significance of the Study
Studies have revealed significant association between youth involved in mentoring relationships and positive developmental outcomes (Rhodes & Dubois, 2008). Understanding the various organizations and institutions involved in mentoring in secondary schools is expected to help those in mentoring synergize their resources together for a better mentoring programme. The study provides information on the type of mentoring relationships resulting to youth empowerment; this is expected to help the teachers, ministries and organizations in designing their mentoring programmes. Also, the study provides information on the differing views of the content of mentoring programmes between the youths and teachers and this is expected to help harmonize their views and in addition, aid in developing policies on the content of mentoring programmes. Information on youth perception on mentoring programmes is expected to help those involved in mentoring the youths. The study further established that mentoring programmes are facing challenges such as inadequate resources, peer and media influence and ignorance. This would help those involved in mentoring the youths come up with better interventions.

Scope of Study
The study was carried out in public and private secondary schools with mentoring programmes in Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County. It involved the youths in secondary schools aged between 15 years and 24 years and the teachers in charge of mentoring programmes. The study focused on finding out the influence of mentoring on youth empowerment particularly with regard to type of mentoring relationships, content of mentoring programmes, perception of youth on mentoring programmes and challenges facing mentoring programmes.

Limitation of the Study
The study was limited to the fact that only youths in formal mentoring programmes were selected while those not in mentoring programmes were left out.

Assumptions
The study assumed that the respondents were willingly involved in the mentoring programmes and participated in the study by providing honest and accurate information on the issues raised.

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 74 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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