INFLUENCE OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE ON PRODUCTIVE WORK AMONG WOMEN IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN NAKURU MUNICIPALITY, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Globally, intimate partner violence is experienced in various cultures and affects people across societies irrespective of their economic status. This is also the case in Sub- Saharan Africa. Kenya is reported to show an increasing trend as reported by Medical and Human Rights groups. The influence of intimate partner violence on women’s productive work in the informal sector is a subject of interest since women play an active role in the sector. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women’s productive work in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality. The study was carried out in five rescue institutions handling intimate partner violence victims with target population of 284. The study employed ex-post facto research design while simple random sampling was used to select 176 participants who were victims of intimate partner violence and had registered the violence in the five rescue institutions. Data was collected by use of researcher administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. A pre-test was conducted among 25 randomly selected women in Lanet Deanery Centre to determine the instrument’s reliability which was found through Cronbachs alpha to be 0.8. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics for qualitative data while inferential statistics based on Chi square test and T-test were used to analyze quantitative data. The findings of the study showed that different forms of IPV were experienced in intimate partner relationship in Nakuru Municipality. The violence reported includes physical, economic, sexual and verbal. Regarding physical violence, slapping was the most common type with 61.95%, while monitoring money expenditure by partners was found to be most prevalent (52.3%) in economic violence. Forced to have sex was the most experienced type of sexual violence at 61.4%, while name calling was the most common type of verbal abuse at 58.5%. The presence of IPV significantly (p < 05) resulted into loss of hours of productive work, and reduced personal earnings. A decline in self-efficacy was also significantly experienced with the majority (79.5%) not able to enjoy working. The findings therefore indicate that IPV has an influence on productive work of women. It has been recommended the government to ensure strict implementation of laws and policies that have been instituted to protect women against IPV. The same should also be considered for further research so that feasible coping mechanisms can be developed.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Two thirds of the world’s working hours are constituted by women, as such; they make a significant contribution to the world’s economy. Women play a pivotal role in the economic growth and development of many countries through their involvement in the informal sector. Income generated from the informal sector contributes significantly to total household income. In many regions, for example, in several African countries, informal sector income accounts for nearly 30 percent of total income and over 40 percent of total urban income (Chen, 2000). The informal sector is the primary source of employment for women in most developing countries. The involvement of women in the informal sector, which accounts for over 95 percent of women in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, is evident in Kenya. In India and in Indonesia, the informal sector accounts for nine out of every ten women (Chen, 2000).

Women’s involvement in the informal sector could however be adversely affected by Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) (CARE, 2005). Previous studies show that, Intimate Partner Violence has an influence on mental state of women, subsequently, influencing their productive work (Campbell, 2002). IPV refers to violence or abuse perpetrated by one intimate partner against another intimate partner that causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm to those in the relationship. Such behaviours include: acts of physical aggression such as slapping, hitting, kicking, and beating; psychological abuse such as intimidation, constant belittling, and humiliating; forced intercourse and other forms of sexual coercion; various controlling behaviours such as isolating a person from their family and friends, monitoring their movements, and restricting their access to information and assistance (Krug, Mercy, Dahlberg & Zwi, 2002).

Globally, IPV is experienced in various cultures and affects people across society irrespective of economic status. A survey carried out in the USA by Bachman and Linda (1995) revealed that women are about six times as likely as men to experience IPV. Further research studies reveal that 30% of women surveyed in Barbados experienced IPV while in Canada the figure was 29%. The other parts of the world such as Egypt, New Zealand, Swaziland and the USA, the respective experiences were 34%, 35%, 21% and 22%, other countries such as Nicaragua reveal the same trend (Tonia & Hamel, 2007). In East Africa, cases of IPV have also been reported. For example in Tanzania 21% of 1444 women reported such cases over a period of 12 months while 26% reported that the violence can occur anytime (McCloskey, Williams and Larsen, 2005). These women reported that the commonly experienced IPV were physical abuse and forced intercourse.

In Kenya, there has been an increased trend to IPV (Medical and Human Rights [MHR], 2010). The statistics at the Gender Violence Recovery Centre in Nairobi Women’s Hospital indicate a drastic increase in IPV. Records in this institution show that cases of IPV were 299 in 2006, 412 in 2007 and 400 in 2008. These statistics are based on reported cases but the ones which go unreported could make the total figure much higher. Further statistics from the centre show that a minimum of eight new cases are reported daily. In Nakuru Municipality, cases of IPV are on the increase. This is confirmed by the increased presence of newly introduced rescue centres for women in abusive relationships such as Tumaina Jipya Centre, Filadelfia Women Crisis Centre, Catholic Diocese of Nakuru and Lanet Deanery within the Municipality.

Families who are prone to violence are often unstable socially, emotionally and economically. Stability is vital for progression and development in a family which forms the basic foundation for national development. In this context the set up of a family needs to create an environment that promotes productive work of all its members, which in turn enhances the economic status of the family. This research was carried out in order to determine the influence of IPV on women’s productive work in the informal sector in Nakuru municipality.

Statement of the Problem
In Nakuru Municipality, women are increasingly using most of their productive working hours in the informal sector. At the same time reports from social actors mostly NGOs have shown an increase of intimate partner violence. Similarly reports from the police gender desk indicate that there is an increase in the number of intimate partner violence cases in the last two years (Nakuru police station, 2012). IPV is quite devastating to physical health, mental wellbeing and social health, all of which may have a bearing on women’s productive work. While most studies have concentrated on how spousal income and in particular how formal employment affects intimate partner violence, little attention has been given to how intimate partner violence influences women’s productive work especially in the informal sector. Furthermore, most of the studies have been done in the developed countries leaving developing countries like Kenya with knowledge gap in IPV. Although IPV is on the increase in Nakuru municipality, it remains unclear how this vice influences women’s productive work in the informal sector. This study therefore, sought to establish the influence of intimate partner violence on women’s productive work in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women’s productive work in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality.

Objectives of the Study
i. To determine the forms of intimate partner violence among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality.

ii. To determine the influence of intimate partner violence on the number of hours spent in productive work among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality.

iii. To find out the influence of intimate partner violence on earnings among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality.

iv. To determine the influence intimate partner violence on self efficacy amongst women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality.

Research Questions
i. What are the forms of intimate partner violence among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality?

ii. What is the influence of intimate partner violence on the number of hours spent in productive work among women in Nakuru Municipality?

iii. What is the influence of intimate partner violence on earnings among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality?

iv. What is the influence of intimate partner violence on self efficacy among women in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality?

Significance of the Study
This study provides information on intimate partner violence and its influence on women’s productive work in the informal sector. The findings from the study are likely to be used by relevant stakeholders such as the Regional Offices for the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, National offices for Policy review and Planning; Local NGOs for development of interventions; women victims of IPV for rehabilitation, empowerment and adaptation of life skills and all concerned stakeholders for provision of relevant support. The findings will likely be useful as reference materials for future studies.

Scope of the Study
The study looked at influence of IPV on women’s productive work in the informal sector in Nakuru Municipality where informal enterprises based on agriculture; livestock and tourism are on the increase. The study narrowed down to the population of women who had reported experiencing IPV to the six rescue institutions namely; Filadelfia Crisis Centre, Tumaini Jipya Centre, St. Gabriel Learning Centre, National Legal Aid and Awareness Program (NALEP), Catholic Diocese of Nakuru and Lanet Deanery. Different forms of IPV have been considered and their influence on productive work specifically with regard to earnings, hours spent in productive work and self efficacy. Nakuru municipality was chosen because of the mushrooming of these institutions which is an indication of increase in intimate partner violence cases.

Limitation of the Study
Violence is a sensitive issue and this could have made some respondents uncomfortable there by limiting the information given. The researcher tried to address this situation by creating a conducive environment for interviews by ensuring confidentiality.

Since the study was based in Nakuru Municipality only the findings may not be generalized to other parts of the country

Assumptions of the Study
The study assumed that

i. Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs among intimate partners

ii. The respondents were honest in their responses

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 67 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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